Tuesday, May 7, 2019

Roman Civilization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Roman Civilization - Essay ExampleIn addition, military leaders won considerable popularity among the people by their impressive victories and opposition to traditional senatorial government. The most telling examples of how an influential leader could ascend to the pinnacle of creator, pushing into the background the other governmental institutions, are Marius with his 7 consulates, Sulla, eventually becoming a dictator, unlimited by time or by law Crassus and Pompey, repeatedly achieving their consulate, and, finally, Caesar. The reform of the military, which became a fundamentally important aspect of Roman register started at about 107 BC during the war between Rome and the Numidian king Jugurtha. This war got a peculiarly scandalous publicity, since the enemy was so shamelessly bribing the senators that the decline of their authority led to the fact that the Roman army came under the command of Gaius Marius. To combat a powerful enemy for the first time in the history of Rom e access to the army of volunteers was opened regardless of social class (the landless, impoverished city dwellers, etc.). dish in the army turned from an honorable duty into a profitable profession soldiers received allowance and were promised land. Organization of the army was improved (Marius introduced division of the legions to cohorts, each consisting of 3 maniples of 200 people), as well as command in general, technical equipment, etc. As a result, the Roman Republic got a well-organized headmaster army. On the other hand the army has turned into an independent social force with its own interests, need and requirements. Military reform has laid the conditions for the extreme increase in power of individual military chiefs, as opposed to the weakening of central authorities, which lost the competence in military sphere, and along with it power functions The toleration into the army of persons who had few and eventually no roots in the State would have demoralizing consequ ences, and alter the generals of the first century to use their armies as though they were their own (Smith 63). Due to the elevation of individual policy-making figures the inevitable structural changes took place in the state apparatus. In particular, a number of extra familiar and ordinary magistrates appeared which have received incomparable power. The role of a military leader increased manifold and such leader was able to use the army as a weapon in the struggle for power in the state. As the first example of this we can consider the consulates of Gaius Marius, which were received in absentia, contrary to the republican tradition, almost continuously in 107 and since 104 to 100 BC. Other examples include series of extraordinary powers given to Pompey since 78 to 52 BC, when he got an institutionalized by the Senate sole authority over the state. The anti-Senate forces, led by Caesar, Pompey and Crassus, cognise as the first triumvirate depended greatly on the army. Probabl y, the strongest influence of the army displayed itself in the civil war. The war that began in 49 BC was caused exclusively by the ambitions of the colonial emperor and his troops though Caesar stressed passim the willingness of his troops to support his cause (Keppie 103) it was not justified by any social or policy-making programs. This was the conflict between the pretenders, each of whom found

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