Saturday, December 28, 2019
Friday, December 20, 2019
The Scarlet Letter The title of my novel is The Scarlet Letter by the prestigious author Nathaniel Hawthorne. The story is set in the mid-seventeenth century in Boston, Massachusetts. It is set during a time in which religion seems to govern over all. The puritan people looked up to the reverends and the community leaders and believed whatever they said as their destinies. During this time everyone was expected to follow the puritan law. Public punishment and shame were used to ensure that people would not go astray, and that they would not fail in the completion of their duties to God. The narrator of The Scarlet Letter is an unknown customhouse worker, who is omniscient. He can greatly be compared to Hawthorne, but he should not be taken as a literal embodiment of his opinions. The protagonist of this novel is Hester Prynne. She was sent to Boston by her husband, who was going to join her after he got his affairs in order in Europe. He was captured by indians and she thought he wou ld never return to her. She has an affair and becomes pregnant, the peoplenof the community then realize that she has committed the sin of adultery. She refuses to confess the identity of her babyÃ¢â¬â¢s father. Hester is persecuted for committing the sin, and forced to wear a scarlet letter Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ for the rest of her life. Pearl, Hester and Dimmesdale s love child, lives under the same persecution as her mother during the entire novel. She is moody and mischievous little girl. She is very wiseShow MoreRelatedThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1242 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLYS PAUL Modern Literature Ms. Gordon The Scarlet Letter The scarlet letter is book written by Nathaniel Hawthorne who is known as one the most studied writers because of his use of allegory and symbolism. He was born on July 4, 1804 in the family of Nathaniel, his father, and Elizabeth Clark Hathorne his mother. Nathaniel added Ã¢â¬Å"WÃ¢â¬ to his name to distance himself from the side of the family. His father Nathaniel, was a sea captain, and died in 1808 with a yellow fever while at sea. That was aRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne960 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages3H 13 August 2014 The novel, The Scarlet Letter, was written by the author Nathaniel Hawthorne and was published in 1850 (1). It is a story about the Puritan settlers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, set around 1650 (2). The story is written in the third person with the narrator being the author. The common thread that runs through this novel is HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s apparent understanding of the beliefs and culture of the Puritans in America at that time. But Hawthorne is writing about events in a societyRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter, By Nathaniel Hawthorne919 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessymbolism in Nathaniel HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Scarlet LetterÃ¢â¬ . Symbolism is when an object is used in place of a different object. Nathaniel Hawthorne is one of the most symbolic writers in all of American history. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Scarlet LetterÃ¢â¬ , the letter Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ is used to symbolize a variety of different concepts. The three major symbolistic ideas that the letter Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ represents in Nathaniel HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Scarlet LetterÃ¢â¬ are; shame, guilt, and ability. In Nathaniel HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Scarlet LetterÃ¢â¬ , the firstRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFebruary 2016 The Scarlet Letter was written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1850 which is based on the time frame of the Puritans, a religious group who arrived in Massachusetts in the 1630Ã¢â¬â¢s. The Puritans were in a religious period that was known for the strict social norms in which lead to the intolerance of different lifestyles. Nathaniel Hawthorne uses the puritanÃ¢â¬â¢s strict lifestyles to relate to the universal issues among us. The time frame of the puritans resulted in Hawthorne eventually thinkingRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Nathaniel Hawthorne is the author of the prodigious book entitled The Scarlet Letter. In The Scarlet Letter, Hester Prynne commits adultery with Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale. Her husband, Roger Chillingworth, soon finds out about the incident after it becomes clear that she is pregnant. The whole town finds out and Hester is tried and punished. Meanwhile, Roger Chillingworth goes out then on a mission to get revenge by becoming a doctor and misprescribing Dimmesdale. He does this to torture DimmesdaleRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne1037 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat human nature knows right from wrong, but is naturally evil and that no man is entirely Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ . Nathaniel Hawthorne, author of the classic novel The Scarlet Letter, believes that every man is innately good and Hawthorne shows that everyone has a natural good side by HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s complex character, ChillingworthÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and DimmesdaleÃ¢â¬â¢s selfless personality. At the beginning of the Scarlet Letter Hester Prynne is labeled as the Ã¢â¬Å"bad guyÃ¢â¬ . The townspeople demand the other adultererÃ¢â¬â¢s name, butRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNathaniel Hawthorne composes Pearl as a powerful character even though she is not the main one. Her actions not only represent what she is as a person, but what other characters are and what their actions are. Hawthorne makes Pearl the character that helps readers understand what the other characters are. She fits perfectly into every scene she is mentioned in because of the way her identity and personality is. Pearl grows throughout the book, which in the end, help the readers better understandRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter, By Nathaniel Hawthorne1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages In Nathaniel HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Scarlet Letter, the main character, Hester Prynne, is a true contemporary of the modern era, being cast into 17th century Puritan Boston, Massachusetts. The Scarlet Letter is a revolutionary novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne examining the ugliness, complexity, and strength of the human spirit and character that shares new ideas about independence and the struggles women faced in 17th century America. Throughout the novel, HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to remove the scarlet letterRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPrynne and Arthur Dimmesdale are subject to this very notion in Nathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter. Hester simply accepted that what she had done was wrong, whereas Dimmesdale, being a man of high regard, did not want to accept the reality of what he did. Similar to Hester and Dimmesdale, Roger Chillingworth allows his emotions to influence his life; however, his influence came as the result of hi s anger. Throughout the book, Hawthorne documents how Dimmesdale and Hester s different ways of dealingRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1714 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSome two hundred years following the course of events in the infamous and rigid Puritan Massachusetts Colony in the 1600s, Nathaniel Hawthorne, descendant of a Puritan magistrate, in the 19th century, published The Scarlet Letter. Wherein such work, Hawthorne offered a social critique against 17th Massachusetts through the use of complex and dynamic characters and literary Romanticism to shed light on said societyÃ¢â¬â¢s inherent contradiction to natural order and natural law. In his conclusive statements
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Table of Contents Introduction Task 1 Discussion the chosen literature review Cross culture issues in marketing communications Cultural dilemmas of international management International organisations and operations addressing the cross culture communications condition efficiently Conclusion Task 2 Introduction Importance of the review literature and existing research. Conclusion Reference list Introduction Cross culture is one of the long known as the influence to the communications and success factors in the international business competition. Cultural awareness shapes the business firms behave in a culturally shaped international market. In order understand the communications process and cultural differences, company must adjourn the skills to capture the large competitive market in global platform (Arnould and Thompson, 2009). The field of international management is very much new and are known for changing rapidly within the change of the business areas. Globalisation has created large number for the companies to maintain the cultural decorum whole conducting business in the other nations. As noted by Theodosiou (2008), there has been numerous occasion , most of the companies are being and trying act and behave as loyal in order to sustain in that nations for create brand awareness among worldwide. This study will takes the 3 major literature theories of the already discussed liter atures review and will discussed the gap and the research design these literature ahs chosen (Brodie et al. 2008). Apart from that study also focus on the gap of these literatures which will be further reviewed within the existing literature review. Task 1 Question-Undertake a review of existing literature and research undertaken in the "field (Managing Cross Cultural Environment by Businesses in International Markets)" you selected to make a research design proposal? Discussion the chosen literature review Cross culture issues in marketing communications Kathy (2011), the chosen Literature has been given in doeth analysis of the culture of marketing communications in the international market. The literatures suggest that, communications is one of the most important parts of the any business form in order to achieve success in the current contemporary competitive market (Tsai et al. 2007). Even if the world has become more global, most of the nations are being has been claiming for the right to a culture in the internationally platform. The nation culture is depended upon their wearing, demographic, economic development and the living style of those people. As noted Rangaswamy et al. (2008), there have been numerous occasions, when the company is looking to manage and control the market by making scapegoat a culture. Cultural differences could create company to resist in the market. Most of the time, companies fails their products in certain countries, although it is very much known brand all over world. This simply because the lack o f the intangible barrier which cannot be seen by these companies. The literature also give emphasis on the importance of cross culture communications in China marketing , since there is many more factors that influence the relationship between Chinese and non Chinese business (Kathy 2011). As the literature mainly focusing on the Chinese economy and their cultural because of the China is being one of the large and potential destinations for the international brands. Apart from that study also focuses on the globalisations perspective which has made the marketing managers to understand the various cultures of different nations in order to promote their products in the international market (Adcock, 2010). The impact of the culture market communication leads to influence of the Chinese and western international business negotiations helps these companies to sustain the sensitive market like china (Boone and Kurtz, 2012). Cross culture communication is also one of the major factors which gives insight of the customer are different and their fundamental aspect of life is very much different from the other nations (Bose, 2010). Cultural dilemmas of international management The aim of this literature is to direct the cultural aspects of the international business management problems and the reason for the fail in the chosen the perspective to fight with cultural difference by the various international companies (MaÃâ¦Ã¢â¬Å¡gorzata and Luis, 2009). The first part of the chapter shows that, international management and the cultural dilemmas of the companies which are facing tough to survive the in the international market. With the help of various model like EPRG and I/R grid and as well as the intercultural management models which will give emphasis on the cultural dilemmas subject (Brodie et al. 2008). Figure 1: I/R Framework This above diagram depicts the problems in the international management while conducting the business in the international market ethnocentric, polycentric, and geocentric and the opportunism (Ephraim, 2013). There has been ample evidence which shows that, company changes its marketing strategy as the company is able to change overtime as its Globalisation deepens. The external selection factors are being ingrained within the home and host nations of which internalisations of the industries and the influence of the international institutions. The study will also give an insight of the I/R Grid framework which strong support the thought of the cultural diversity within the international business in order sustain in the international market (Rangaswamy et al. 2008). The selected problems during the time of internationalisations cultural dilemmas can be managed via implementing the effective international strategy, managing the appropriate organisational design and managing the people i n a cross cultural environment. Cultural differences helps to influence the all the common areas which will direct the gain the stakeholders confidences by creating values, beliefs and convictions and basic assumption of the certain areas (Javalgi and White, 2010). International organisations and operations addressing the cross culture communications condition efficiently As far as the study concern, the Globalisations has changes the form of the managing the markets by implementing the cross cultural communications within the decision making process of the organisations. The 21st century has global and independent economy which strongly shows the business leaders and their international entrepreneurship movement (Ephraim, 2013). The global exposure has been able to create think globally while producing or distributing the goods and services. With the help of cross culture communications, multinational companies are looking to manage the internal management skills in order to increase the scope of large customer base of their products and internal investment which will makes the company one of the largest franchisee in future (Ephraim 2013). One of the major challenges faced by the international business is choosing the transmission of send the message to the customers. Figure 2: Hosfstedes cultural dimensions theory With the help of Hosfstede cultural dimensions develop the cross culture negotiations and decision making within and among the companies. Importance of the cross culture depends upon the management and their strategies in their negotiations and cross cultural interactions. For examples, international business etiquettes requires the ability to adopt different national processes and patterns while entering into the global market (Bottomley and Doyle, 2008). One of the major challenges that are faced by the most of the organisation are direct eye contact and measure the honesty level and integrity from their work ethics are one of the major instrument of assessing the company progress in USA. However, in China and in some of the Asian nations direct eye contact mean to rudeness behaviour (Theodosiou, 2008). Therefore, much is depend on the tone and expression of facial consist shows the culture specific and non verbal communications. On the other hand, as noted by Varey (2007), with the help of comparative analysis of global business etiquettes, manager will have enough scope to manage the goodwill and creditability. For instance while conducting business in China, one must ensure to for face giving and face taking rather just selling of the products. Business etiquettes in England are based on the strong sense and based on the deadline oriented in business negotiations (Doole and Low, 2008). Conclusion From the above discussion it has been found that, global business orientations is very much expresses to use various model and theory to manage the cross culture environment within the international business market. These above theory has various gaps like cross culture concepts , and international business concept is very much wide aspect for the company. Managing cross culture within the nations is one of the major challenges which cannot be mitigate the by the some normal etiquettes or the market knowledge. This gap will be filled by the post reviewed literature which has not been yet discussed in all of these chapters. Task 2 Question- a. explain the importance of review literature and existing research in the research process. b. describe and evaluate the main sources of information for a literature review and justify your conclusions. Introduction The study of managing cross culture environment by business in international markets is the major purpose of the existing literature. After reviewing the existing literature given in the cross culture environment, it has been found that, there is huge gap in the field of research (Bose, 2010). The current research requires analysing the cross culture marketing tools to sustain in the international market which is somehow lacking the existing objectives of the research. Importance of the review literature and existing research The reviewed literature has given insight of the cross culture movement within the current competitive global business scenario. As the business is expanding worldwide, most of the business managers are looking to implement the cross culture environment within their business in order to maintain the decorum within the changing business environment. As noted by Adcock (2010), the above literatures focus on the communion skills etiquettes and cultural dilemma about the internal business globalised business. Specifically in that of communications, international business give emphasis to the cultural differences influences all areas which are mentioned above. However, there has been some of the gap which shows the objectives of the current literature is not been satisfied and is needed further studies for which the current study is required. The current study will mitigate the gap of business expand in the international markets, major ways in which performance of management of business p rocess can be ensured in a positive manner throughout the international markets (Boone and Kurtz, 2012). On the contrary, as discussed by Bottomley and Doyle (2008), the existing research will fill the gap of above given literatures which basically focus on the communications and etiquettes. The above literature requires further study for depend upon the study of cross culture in the international perspective. The entire objectives of the existing research has been not fulfilled as per the above objectives, In spite of that, the above literatures only fulfil theist objective of the study which is to analyse the need and importance of performing the management of cross cultural environment conditioned in the Global market (Theodosiou, 2008). Apart from that rest of two are been discussed above in detail. The above, study has done in the year 2009 which is very much outdated as per the companies report. The existing res4erachahs not fill gap of the current study of researcher which why the further study is required to get ensure that all major objective of the studies would fulfil. One of the major objectives which is to issues that faced by most of the internals business are being not discussed deepen (Kathy 2011). Only challenges like communication Gap international market and some of the major expression while conducting business has been conducted. Apart from that, the current study needs and great emphasis on the cross culture dimension for the conducting international business in a global platform (Bose, 2010). There has been ample evidence which shows that, the second most objective which is yet to be discovered in the above literature review. For the current assessment various types of ethnic group and their STP process is required to conduct business in other parts of the nations (Bowman and Gatignon, 2010). Conversely, the gap of STP process which is needed to be control and managed by the consumers of cross culture and different ethnic group which will again satisfies the current study. Conclusion As observed from the study, the researcher was not able to gather knowledge and decision making from the existing literatures. Cross culture is considered as one of the major essence of the topic and the existing literature is lacking to determine the choice selection of models. Cross culture recognition the growth was not achieved by particular organisations. There is gap in the above literatures which will be further discussed in the topic. Apart from that, the satisfaction level of the with existing level is low because most of the given literature shows that, MNC need to focus on the communications, etiquettes and interaction strategy while opening international business. However, all of these study does not satisfies the perception of the cross culture which could have been marketings strategy like STP process and Acculturation theory and model would reduce the gap within the existing literatures. Reference list Books Adcock, D. (2010) Marketing: Principles and practice. 4th ed. London, Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publication. Boone, L. E. and Kurtz, D. L. (2012) Contemporary Marketing, Page 84, 7th ed. New York: Kaplan Publishing. Bose, C. (2010) Modern Marketing Principles Practice. . 5th ed. Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning. Bowman, D. and Gatignon, H. (2010) Market Response and Marketing Models, 4th ed. London: Routledge. Doole, I. and Low, R. (2008) International marketing strategy. 5th ed. Bedford, London: Thomson Learning. Varey, R. (2007) Marketing communication: principles and practice. 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill: London. Journals Kathy T, (2011), Cross-Cultural Issues in Marketing Communications: An Anthropological Perspective of International Business, International Journal of China Marketing, vol. 2(1) 2011. MaÃâ¦Ã¢â¬Å¡gorzata R and Luis B, (2009). Cultural Dilemmas of International Management, Journal of Intercultural Management Vol. 1, No. 1, April 2009, pp. 9199. Ephraim O, (2013). International Organizations and Operations:An Analysis of Cross-Cultural Communication Effectiveness and Management Orientation, Journal of Business Management. Volume1 Number 1, January 2013. Arnould, E. J. and Thompson, C. J. (2009) Consumer Culture Theory (CCT): Twenty Years of Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 868-882. Managing cross cultural environment by businesses in international mar Question- Write a Research Proposal on Managing cross cultural environment by businesses in international markets?The research proposal must include a background which describes the basic situation underlying your project? Introduction Background: Businesses perform the expansion of their business activities at regular basis with a view to achieve higher level of growth in their operations. Such international expansion of business processes has been highly popularised because of closer integration of the world economy, and also because of rapid pace with which globalisation is pursued by businesses. There have been higher growth opportunities available in the international markets that drive businesses in expanding into such markets. However, the major business issue to them is mainly from the cross cultural environment conditions faced by them in the international markets which create difficulties to them in managing their processes successfully. The successful management of business activities require appropriate strategy and approach with respect to different important aspects related to it. As in respect to businesses in international markets, they are required to make adequate level of considerations for the c ross cultural environment conditions as prevalent within it (Ajami and Goddard, 2006). A study as carried out by Johnson, Lenartoeicz and Apud (2006), it has been assessed that one of the major reasons leading to the failure of businesses in international markets is mainly the lower overall ability of businesses to achieve higher level of competence with regard to the cultural factors. Cross cultural competence is essential to businesses in efficiently performing their operations in markets that are significantly different from their domestic business environment. The role of cultural differences across international boundaries has been identified as significantly important as identified by Shenkar (2001) and this gives an indication of the fact that businesses could achieve success across international environment by focusing towards managing this cultural environment factor. There are various such cases whereby businesses fail to recognise the cross cultural environment conditions across target market, and this has affected their performance in an adverse manner acro ss such international business environment conditions. One such example is of Coca Cola whereby the company failed to understand the cultural conditions across Asian markets, as it involved the slogan such as Coke Adds Life and this has been considered in a different manner by people. Because of the existence of cultural differences across Asian market, this slogan has been interpreted as Coke brings people from the dead situation (Long, 2004). Rationale for the Project: This project on performing the management of cultural conditions across international boundaries is highly justified after looking at the cases of failure of businesses. As suggested by Johnson, Lenartoeicz and Apud (2006), the most number of cases of failure of businesses across international markets is mainly because of lack of appropriate cultural understanding. This research report will allow for identifying the areas that must be given importance and also the ways in which the management of cross cultural environment can be performed in an efficient manner. Benefits of this Research: The performance of this research in an efficient manner will result into the attainment of benefits in the form of identification of important areas that must be given higher level of attention by management while managing their business processes across international environment. Apart from this, the necessary approach that must be followed by businesses in managing their business processes across international environment would also be identified from conducting this research. These benefits will be accrued from the successful completion of this research. Research Question and Research Objective: The research question that will be answered through conducting this research is mainly described as how the issues from cultural differences across international boundaries can be efficiently addressed by businesses? The important research objectives in addressing this particular research question are: To analyse the need and importance of performing the management of cross cultural environment conditions across international boundaries. To identify the issues those are mostly encountered by businesses from expanding to international markets. To evaluate the major ways in which the performance of management of business processes can be ensured in a positive manner across international boundaries in addressing the cross cultural environment conditions efficiently. Research Methods As this research is aimed at assessing the cross cultural management issues faced by businesses when they performs the expansion of their business processes and activities across international boundaries, the researcher is required to make adequate level of consideration with respect to the collection of appropriate data. The data collection methodology is highly essential to be appropriate in ensuring that the research question is appropriately answered. This section of research methodology considers the application of different aspects related to data collection methods so that the actual collection of data can be performed in a highly efficient manner. These aspects are discussed as follows: Research Philosophy: The selection of an appropriate research philosophy is the first and foremost important thing that the researcher is required to carry out in performing the collection of most relevant data. Research philosophy is concerned with the development of research background, research knowledge and its nature. The research philosophy selection can be done from the three available philosophies such as positivism, realism and interpretive research philosophy. The selection of appropriate philosophy is dependent on the nature of the research to a greater level. As in the given research on examining the cross cultural issues faced by businesses across international boundaries, the research philosophy that is highly suitable is positivism philosophy because it has been quite clear that cultural differences poses issues to businesses in successfully performing their operations across international boundaries. As a result, a positivist approach is likely to ensure the collectio n of most relevant data appropriate to answering the research question (Muijs, 2010 Data Types Selection: As a part of performing the collection of data, the researcher is required to make decision with respect to the appropriate data types necessary in achieving the research objectives efficiently. The data types as available are mainly categorised into two major types including the qualitative data and quantitative data. Qualitative data ensures the collection of in-depth data whereby the researcher focuses on collecting subjective data. However, quantitative data is concerned with the collection of numerical data whereby the researcher emphasises on performing the measurement of the collected data. There can be the applicability of mixed research methodology that can be ensured by researcher depending on the type and requirement. In this research on examining the cultural issues in the context of international business management, the data type that has been considered as highly efficient is mainly the application of mixed methodology whereby both the qualitative data and quantitative data would be collected to analyse the cross cultural issues and their impact on organisations performance (Muijs, 2010). Data Collection Methods: The decision regarding the data collection methods is also essential to be made by the researcher and there can be the application of primary data collection method and secondary data collection method that can be performed by researcher in collecting relevant data in the research. This research also involves the application of both these primary data collection and secondary data collection methods to analyse the management of cross cultural management issues in the international context. The primary data involves the collection of first hand data by the researcher by way of applying techniques such as interviews, surveys, observation etc. Secondary data collection method on the other hand involves the collection of data from already available sources including academic journals, books, online sites, company documents etc. This research on investigating the cultural issues in the context of international boundaries will apply primary data collection in the form of interviews and surveys. The application of both these techniques will allow for the collection of both the subjective data as well as objective data. As for instance, surveys would be carried out with the employees of multinational organisational that are operating in UK so that their viewpoints can be identified with respect to managing business processes by their company in the culturally diverse environment context. The surveys would be carried out through the application of appropriate questionnaire that would comprise of questions on the issues of managing business practices across culturally diverse environment. Apart from this, interviews would also be carried out with the managers of multinational corporations that are operating in UK to analyse the major cultural issues as faced by them, and the management strategies that have been c onsidered for their management. In these ways, the collection of data would be carried out in this research on analysing the management of cultural issues in the context of international business environment conditions. In performing the collection of data from both these sources, the sampling size that would be considered is a sample of 10 managers especially from the global management department of the selected multinational organisations, and a sample of 100 employees from such multinational organisations (Creswell, 2003). Analysis of the Collected Data: The data as collected through the application of interview and survey technique needs to be analysed so that appropriate research findings can be reached. This research involves the collection of data from both these sources, and the interview data as collected will be analysed through applying the thematic analytical technique. As per this technique, appropriate themes would be identified in relation to the cultural issues and their management across international context, and they would then be analysed to reach appropriate conclusion. Contrary to this, the quantitative data collected through the application of survey will be analysed in the form of diagrams and charts to better reflect the respondents responses. In these ways, the analysis of the collected data is performed in this research (Creswell, 2003). Ethical, Validity and Reliability Issues: In performing the collection of data, the role of ethics is significant, and the researcher is therefore required to make adequate level of considerations with respect to such ethical values. In this research, the data collection process will be performed by the researcher by way of following higher ethical values which could be achieved through providing self discretion to the respondents as to participate or not to participate in the research. There will also be the adequate level of protection of anonymity and confidentiality of respondents. Apart from this, the validity feature would be observed in the data collection process in this research by way of ensuring the most appropriate selection of target audience in performing the collection of data i.e. the employees and managers of multinational corporations. This would ensure the attainment of higher level of validity over the collected data. The reliability factor would be ensured over t he collected data by making it sure that the researcher himself engages in the data collection process so that biasness can be eliminated throughout the entire data collection process (Berg and Latin, 2007). References Ajami, R.A. and Goddard, G.J. (2006), International business: theory and practice, 2nd ed., M.E. Sharpe. Berg, K.E. and Latin, R.W. (2007), Essentials of research methods in health, physical education, exercise science, and recreation Point, (3rd ed.), Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Creswell, J.W. (2003), Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 2nd ed, UK: Publisher SAGE. Johnson, J.P., Lenartowicz, T. and Apud, S. (2006), Cross-cultural competence in international business: toward a definition and a model, Journal of Business Studies, Vol. 37, pp. 525-543. Long, C.H. (2004), Religion and Global Culture: New Terrain in the Study of Religion, Lexington Books. Muijs, D. (2010), Doing Quantitative Research in Education with SPSS, (2nd ed.), SAGE Publications Ltd. Shenkar, O. (2001), Cultural Distance Revisited: Towards a More Rigorous Conceptualisation and Measurement of Cultural Differences, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 32 (3), pp. 519-535.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
The term market refers to the place where buyers and sellers meet to engage in transactions that entail the exchange of goods or the provision of services for a consideration. A market is not only characterized by a building where people carry out business transactions. This is because any place that people carry out commerce can be referred to as a market. A market is characterized by various mechanisms that facilitate trade. These mechanisms usually pertain to the supply and demand of products and services (Bergin, 2005). From this explanation it should be clear that a market is comprised of three main elements. The sellers these are the people who bring the products or services to the market to be procured by the willing buyers. At this stage it is imperative to highlight that in most cases sellers are the produces however in other instances the sellers are not necessarily the producers instead they can be traders. The second element of the market is the buyers. Buyers are individual who are willing and able to acquire the products or services being offered at the prevailing market price. Buyers are of two types; there are those that buy the products or services for their own consumption and there are those that buy the products or services in order to resell them in different markets. The buyers who buy the products for their own consumption are referred to as consumers whereas buyers who buy the products or services in order to resell them in different market are commonly referred to as trades and they can also be called arbitragers (Nicholson amp; Snyder, 2008). The third element of the market is the products that are being traded. The term product can be used to refer to either goods or services that are being offered in exchange for a consideration. The term product can also be used to refer to commodities only. General Objectives One of the general objectives of this paper is to facilitate the readers of this document to gain an understanding of how markets work and most importantly how a monopolistic competitive market works. This paper will achieve this through briefly discussing various types of markets and their characteristics. Another general objective of this paper is to compare and contrast the various characteristics of the different forms of market structures. This will serve to enable the readers to carry out a comparative analysis of the various forms of market structures thus they will be able to enhance their knowledge on market structures. This objective will be attained through the analysis of the factors, which are mainly in play for the existence of a particular form of market. The paper will also seek to analyze how the various factors in such markets interrelate in order to develop a market mechanism for that form of market structure. This is because all forms of markets structures have market mechanisms. These market mechanisms are usually as result of the interaction of various factors that are both internal and external to a particular market. Specific Objectives One of the specific objectives of this paper is to discuss the conceptual theory of a monopolistic competitive market. The discussion of the monopolistic competitive market entails analyzing the various factors that characterize this particular form of market structure. This is will be important form enhance the knowledge of the readers of this paper, on monopolistic competitive market structure. The discussion of the conceptual theory will also enable the readers to have a good basis for analyzing and responding to questions that relate to monopolistic competitive market structure. Another objective is to discuss the characteristics of a monopolistic competitive market. The discussion of the characteristics of a monopolistic competitive market structure is important because it will serve to explain how the various factors involved in this type of market structure interrelate in order to this unique type of market. The discussion of the characteristic of a monopolistic competitive market will serve to enhance the understanding of the readers of how companies that operate in such a market carry out their operations. The discussion of these characteristics will serve to inform the readers the various factors that companies operating in this type of market put into consideration during decision-making. This discussion will also enable the readers to be able to identify a monopolistic competitive market in a real business situation. This paper also aims at establishing how market equilibrium is achieved both in the long Ã¢â¬â run and in the short run. This is mainly because in a monopolistic competitive market structure, market equilibrium is achieved differently both in the short Ã¢â¬â run and in the long Ã¢â¬â run. This analysis is imperative mainly because this knowledge enables the management to have a good basis for decision-making. The analysis will provide factors that the management should put into consideration whenever they are making decisions concerning either the short term or the long Ã¢â¬â term future of a company. The illustration of how market equilibriums are achieved in the short run or in the long run will enable the readers to gain understanding of how the various factors in this market structure relate in the determination of the equilibrium market prices. It will also enable to understand how companies that operate in a monopolistic competitive market adapt themselves in order to be able to operate in this particular form of market at minimal costs and manage to obtain maximum profits. This paper will also provide a practical example of a monopolistic competitive market. In this example, the paper will seek to illustrate how the conceptual theory is exhibited in this form of market structure. This paper will utilize this example in order to enhance the knowledge of the reader on how market equilibrium is attained both in the long Ã¢â¬â run and in the short Ã¢â¬â run. This example will illustrate how the various factors are displayed in a real market situation, also this paper will utilize the example to look at the type of decisions that are made by mangers of companies that operate in a monopolistic competitive markets structure. Conceptual Theory There are four forms of market structure namely, monopoly, perfect competition, monopolistic competition and oligopoly. These forms of market structures are characterized by different market conditions. Markets are mainly classified according to the number of firms in the industry or the form of products sold in them. The number of firms operating in a particular market determines the level of competition in that market. Product markets are mainly categorized according to the number of firms in the industry and the degree of competition that is prevalent in a particular industry. At this stage it is also important to highlight that equilibrium prices in these markets are subject to the forces of supply and demand. The forces of supply and demand are known as the price mechanism. An individual firm on itself cannot influence the price of a commodity and can therefore only take the price prevailing in the market. Due to this condition a firm is therefore said to be a price taker (Nicholson amp; Snyder, 2008). The movement along a demand curve is caused by changes in price of a commodity. An increase in price results in a decrease in quantity demanded hence a movement along the demand curve to the left. A shift in the demand curve is caused by changes in factors other than the price of the commodity in question. Different quantities are therefore demanded at the original price. A shift in the demand curve outwards to the right indicates that more quantities are demanded at the original price whereas a shift inwards to the left indicates that fewer quantities are demanded at the original price (Dwivedi, 2006). Movement in the supply curve is similar to movement in the demand curve. A shift in the supply curve refers to a relocation of the supply curve either outwards to the right or inwards to the left due to change in the factors that affect supply other than price. This means that at each price, a different quantity will be supplied that was previously supplied. Equilibrium price refers to the price, where the quantity demanded equals that supplied. It is the price at which the amount the customers are able and willing to buy is equal to the quantity producers willing and able to supply. The equilibrium point, refers to a point at which the demand and the supply curve intersect. Any price above the equilibrium price leads to excess supply, whereas any price below the equilibrium price leads to excess demand. Excess demand or supply causes disequilibrium in the market. Due to the excess demand for a particular commodity in the market, a shortage is created. This shortage causes the consumers to compete for the limited commodity in the market thus making the price of that commodity go up. As he price continues to rise, suppliers put more of the commodity into the market (Mandal, 2007). On the other hand, the high price also discourages some consumers from buying the commodity. This scenario of increased supply and reducing demand continues until the equilibrium price and quantity are set. When there is excess supply of a commodity in the market the prices begins to fall. As the price falls more consumers purchase the commodity. The suppliers also reduce the amount of t he commodity they are releasing into the market due to the falling prices. This scenario of falling supply and increasing demand continues until the equilibrium price and quantity are set. It is also important to highlight that a general assumption in the study of this subject is that firms aim at attaining maximum profits using minimal costs possible. This means during decision making the managers of the firm will always aim at using the least resources possible and utilise them efficiently in order to attain the maximum achievable profits possible. The level of output that will bring about maximum profit in a firm depends on the costs incurred and the revenues earned. Revenues refers to incomes obtained by a firm from the sale of its outputs and they may be categorized into three namely, total revenue, average revenue and marginal revenue. Total revenue refers to the total income earned by a firm from the sale of its output. Total revenue is obtained through multiplying the total output sold by the price. Average revenue refers to income per unit of output. Average revenue can be obtained by dividing the total revenue obtained by the number of units of output. It is important to note that the average revenue is the same as the price of the commodity (Dwivedi, 2006). This implies that the average revenue curve, which relates average revenues to output, is the same as the demand curve, which relates prices to output. Marginal revenue refers to the addition to the total revenue arising from the sale of an additional unit of output. Marginal revenue can also be obtained by subtracting the previous total revenue from the current one and can be seen to be equal to the price and average revenue. Characteristics of a monopolistic competitive market This is a market structure that combines aspects of perfect competition and those of a monopoly. There are many sellers and many buyers just like in perfect competition. The commodities dealt with are similar but each firm tends to differentiate its products from those of its competitors through acts such as branding, packing, wrapping and coloring. A monopolistic competitive market structure is a combination of the features that will be discussed in the succeeding paragraphs. In a monopolistic competitive market there exist many buyers and sellers. This comes in adequately because there is no single firm that can influence the prices of commodities or services in the market. If a business sells its goods or services above the market price then consumers can buy their goods from other businessmen. If a company sells its products at a lower price then chances of making a loss is very high (Mandal, 2007). Though a business may increase its prices in a perfect competition, the action may be risky since customers will move to another business. This is not the case with a monopolistic business, though a firm may lose some of the customers, some will remain due to the kind of relationship they have with the seller or even the quality of the given products. All the aforementioned factors are due to the fact that there is a large number of buyers and customers that act independently. In this form of market structure it is assumed that the sellers and the buyers of commodities are well informed about the market. That is they know the prices, quality of products and all the factors affecting the market. In this market the products are differentiated. The products from different producers either vary in quality or the product is a group of commodities which are close substitutes of each other (Mandal, 2007). For instance, in the toothpaste industry there are different brands such as Colgate, CloseÃ¢â¬â up and Aquafresh. This differentiation of products from different firms enables each firm to enjoy a certain degree of monopoly power. A monopolistic competitive market is characterized by freedom of entry and exit. This means there are no barriers to a business entering or living the market. This means that new firms wishing to supply the same commodity are free to do so (Bergin, 2005). Similarly, existing firms wishing to leave the market are free to do so. How to determine equilibrium in the short Ã¢â¬â run and long Ã¢â¬â run on Monopolistic Competitive Market Structure Price and output determination under monopolistic competition Due to product differentiation, a firm under monopolistic competition is able to exercise some influence on the price of the product. This means that a firm can raise prices yet some customers will still buy at these high prices (Dwivedi, 2006). However, many customers will switch to rivalsÃ¢â¬â¢ products. On the other hand, if the firm lowers the price, it would attract some buyers from the rival firms, thereby increasing its productÃ¢â¬â¢s demand. A monopolistically competitive market has a demand curve that slopes downward from left to right. In a monopolistic competitive market the demand curve is fairly elastic. This means that a small change in price will bring about more than proportionate changes in quantities demanded. This is because there are many substitutes in the market. The demand curve is more elastic than the one faced by a monopolist but less elastic than a perfectly competitive market whose demand is perfectly elastic (Jehle amp; Reny, 2011). The relationship between average revenue and marginal revenue is similar to that of a monopolist. For average revenue to be increasing as more units of output are sold, the marginal revenue must be lower than the average revenue. Short Ã¢â¬â run equilibrium output under monopolistic competition A firm under monopolistic competition will be at equilibrium at an output when profits are maximized. This is the position when marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost. This is at price P1 and quantity Qe. However, there still excess demand and the firm can maximize its profits by changing price Pe. The firm will therefore produce quantity Qe and sell at price Pe (Jehle amp; Reny, 2011). Qe represents equilibrium output and P1 represents equilibrium price. The price at which the equilibrium output can be sold is determined by the demand Curve (Average Revenue) and its price. Profits are maximized at a level of output between O (zero) and the equilibrium quantity demanded. Long Ã¢â¬â run equilibrium output under monopolistic competition A firm under monopolistic competition can make supernormal profits in the short Ã¢â¬â run. Since there is free entry of new firm into the market, the supernormal profits will attract the new firms with the effect that demand for the old firmÃ¢â¬â¢s customers will be taken by new firms. The demand curve for the old firm therefore shifts right to left (Mandal, 2007). A lower quantity is demanded at each price. Firms are likely to increase expenditure on product promotion due to increased competition, which in turn would cause the average total cost curve to shift upwards. New firms will continue to enter the market as long as the existing equilibrium is achieved and all firms would be earning normal profits. The equilibrium point is where the average revenue is equal to the average cost. This point is achieved in the long run when the average revenue curve is a tangent to the average cost curve. The firm will be at equilibrium when it produces output at the equilibrium quantity demanded (Bergin, 2005). This is where the marginal revenues equal the marginal cost because the firm is in the business of profit maximization. At the point of equilibrium, the average cost is equal to the average revenue. This is so because competitive pressure means that a firm can neither make a loss nor earn supernormal profits. At this point of equilibrium the firm is making normal profits only. Conclusion An example of a monopolistic competitive market is the toothpaste market. The toothpaste market is characterized by firms that offers products that are similar but they are highly differentiated. Consumers of Colgate toothpaste believe that Colgate is the number one brand of toothpaste that ensures strong teeth. As a result of this the consumers are normally willing to buy toothpaste regardless of the price. Consumers of Aquafresh toothpaste believe that Aquafresh is the number one brand that ensures healthy germs and fresh breathe. As a result of this customers are willing to always procure the Aquafresh toothpaste regardless of the price.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Principles of Marketing (MRKT 310) Study Guide Essay Essay Overview Welcome to the Student Study Guide for Spring 2010. This papers will help you analyze throughout the semester and as you prepare for the common concluding test required for all subdivisions of MRKT 310. Your module member has been instrumental in the design of this trial. Continue to seek his or her aid understanding the stuff as the semester progresses. Many of the text constructs are non included in the concluding test and your module member through written assignments. instance surveies. conferences. or other methods will measure your apprehension of them. We will write a custom essay sample on Principles of Marketing (MRKT 310) Study Guide Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Principles of Marketing (MRKT 310) Study Guide Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Principles of Marketing (MRKT 310) Study Guide Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer UMUC requires all proctored concluding test in the School of Undergraduate Studies be closed book. Therefore. no notes or other survey AIDSs will be allowed in the testing centre. This is a comprehensive concluding test covering the full class. All policies and processs required by UMUC and the testing centre apply. For those of you taking the paper and pencil version of the concluding test. there are two versions ( Version A and Version B ) each dwelling of an eight-page Test Instrument and a six-page Answer Sheet ( pages 9 through 14 ) . You may happen it utile to detach the Answer Sheet from the Test Instrument to let you easier entree to both paperss. Write your name and subdivision figure ( e. g. . 6980. 6981. 6982. etc. ) on the Answer Sheet. You may compose on the trial instrument. but lone responses on the Answer Sheet will be graded. For those of you taking the on-line version of the concluding test. all instructions will be noted on your computing machine screen. The on-line concluding test is indistinguishable to the paper-and-pencil version except for the inquiry order. We strongly promote you to subscribe up for the on-line version if it is available at your proving site. Please be warned that this is non an easy trial and you should be prepared to pass the full three-hour clip allocation at your proctored testing centre. Most of your clip should be spent on the short and long essays. Do non brood on the definitions and the multiple-choice subdivisions. You will either cognize them or you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t. depending on your readying. and you will blow valuable clip you will necessitate for the essays. You should be having this common pupil survey usher at the beginning of the semester. Print it out and maintain it near at manus. Be certain to reexamine it carefully and inquire your module member any clear uping inquiries on either trial format or content prior to the first twenty-four hours of finals hebdomad. Once finals hebdomad has begun. your module member will non be able to reply any inquiries sing the concluding test. When you finish your test. return BOTH the Test Instrument and your completed Answer Sheet to your monitor. Answer Sheets returned without the Test Instrument will non be graded. Part I Ã¢â¬â Definitions ( 25 per centum ) You will necessitate to cognize the definitions for 25 selling footings. You will read the definition and choose the right reply from the Word Bank. Then. publish the figure of the right term on your reply sheet. Following is the exact Word Bank as it will look on your concluding test. WORD BANKAll correct footings for the above 25 statements can be found on this list. 1. Brand 2. value proposition 3. gross revenues publicity 4. adulthood 5. motivation 6. economic environment 7. microenvironment 8. direct selling 9. consumer perceived value 10. life style 11. selling mix 12. market cleavage 13. consumer market 14. Marketing information system 15. merchandise mix 16. value bringing web 17. SWOT analysis 18. intensive distribution 19. monetary value snap 20. placement 21. commercialisation 22. Product life rhythm 23. merchandise 24. mark market 25. civilization 1. Brand Ã¢â¬â is a name. mark. symbol. motto or anything that is used to place and separate a specific merchandise. service. or concern. 2. Value proposition Ã¢â¬â is an analysis and quantified reappraisal of the benefits. costs and value that an organisation can present to clients and other component groups within and outside of the organisation. 3. Gross saless publicity is one of the four facets of promotional mix. ( The other three parts of the promotional mix are advertisement. personal merchandising. and publicity/public relations. ) Media and non-media selling communicating are employed for a pre-determined. limited clip to increase consumer demand. stimulate market demand or better merchandise handiness. 4. Adulthood 5. Motive Ã¢â¬â An emotion. desire. physiological demand. or similar urge that acts as an incitation to action. 6. Economic environment Ã¢â¬â Economics is the societal scientific discipline that surveies the production. distribution. and ingestion of goods and services. 7. The micro-environment consists of stakeholder groups that a house has regular traffics with. The manner these relationships develop can impact the costs. quality and overall success of a concern. Suppliers. distributers. clients and competition. 8. Direct selling Ã¢â¬â is a signifier of advertisement that reaches its audience without utilizing traditional formal channels of advertisement. such as Television. newspapers or wireless. Businesss communicate straight to the consumer with advertisement techniques such as flyers. catalogue distribution. promotional letters. and street advertisement. 9. Consumer perceived value Ã¢â¬â The value of a merchandise is the mental appraisal a consumer makes of it. Formally it may be conceptualized as the relationship between the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived benefits in relation to the sensed costs of having these benefits. It is frequently expressed as the equation: Value = Benefits / Cost 10. Lifestyle Ã¢â¬â A mode of life that reflects the personÃ¢â¬â¢s values and attitudes. 11. Marketing mix Ã¢â¬â Product. monetary value. topographic point and publicity. Packaging. Peoples. Public Voice. Pamper. Politicss and Physical Evidence. 12. Market cleavage Ã¢â¬â Market cleavage is a scheme that involves spliting a larger market into subsets of consumers who have common demands and applications for the goods and services offered in the market. These subgroups of consumers can be identified by a figure of different demographics. depending on the intents behind placing the groups. Selling runs are frequently designed and implemented based on this type of client cleavage. 13. Consumer market Ã¢â¬â A defined group of consumers. Buyers and possible purchasers of goods and services for personal and family usage 14. Marketing information system Ã¢â¬â Set of processs and patterns employed in analysing and measuring selling information. gathered continuously from beginnings inside and outside of a house. Seasonably marketing information provides footing for determinations such as merchandise development or betterment. pricing. packaging. distribution. media choice. and publicity. See besides market information system. 15. Product mix Ã¢â¬â Range of associated merchandises which yield larger gross revenues gross when marketed together than if they are marketed separately or in isolation of others. 16. Value bringing web Ã¢â¬â A Value Delivery is a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s supply concatenation and how it spouses with specific providers and distributers in the procedure of bring forthing goods and presenting them to market. It involves utilizing competitory advantages external to the house ( providers. distributers. clients ) . 17. SWOT analysis Ã¢â¬â A scan of the internal and external environment is an of import portion of the strategic planning procedure. Environmental factors internal to the house normally can be classified as strengths ( S ) or failings ( W ) . and those external to the house can be classified as chances ( O ) or menaces ( T ) . Such an analysis of the strategic environment is referred to as a SWOT analysis. 18. Intensive distribution Ã¢â¬â Marketing scheme under which a house sells through as many mercantile establishments as possible. so that the consumers encounter the merchandise virtually everyplace they go: supermarkets. drug shops. gas Stationss. etc. Soft drinks are by and large made available through intensive distribution. 19. Price snap Ã¢â¬â Is an snap used in economic sciences to demo the reactivity of the measure demanded of a good or service to a alteration in its monetary value. 20. Positioning Ã¢â¬â In selling. placement has come to intend the procedure by which sellers try to make an image or individuality in the heads of theirmark market for its merchandise. trade name. or organisation. 21. Commercialization Ã¢â¬â is the procedure or rhythm of presenting a new merchandise into the market. 22. Product life rhythm Ã¢â¬â A new merchandise progresses through a sequence of phases from debut to growing. adulthood. and diminution. This sequence is known as the merchandise life rhythm and is associated with alterations in the selling state of affairs. therefore impacting the selling scheme and the selling mix. 23. Product Ã¢â¬â An point that ideally satisfies a marketÃ¢â¬â¢s privation or demand. 24. Target market Ã¢â¬â Involves interrupting a market into sections and so concentrating your selling attempts on one or a few cardinal sections. 25. Culture Ã¢â¬â Represents the behaviour. beliefs and. in many instances. the manner we act learned by interacting or detecting other members of society. In this manner. much of what we do is shared behavior. passed along from one member of society to another. Part II Ã¢â¬â Multiple Choice ( 20 per centum ) There are 20 multiple-choice inquiries from which you can choose a. b. c. or vitamin D responses. Be careful as most multiple-choice inquiries will hold at least two picks that look executable. Choose the 1 that is the most on point. The multiple-choice inquiries are both definitional and application types. Choose the right missive of your pick and compose it on the Answer Sheet in the suitably numbered box. The undermentioned list comprises those constructs from the text. which you can anticipate to be assessed via the concluding test. They are presented in order of the class aims. Course Objective 1 Ã¢â¬â understand how selling scheme creates a positiverelationship between a house and its clients. ( Chapter 1 ) 1. Relationships between demands. wants. demands Ã¢â¬â is the procedure by which companies determine what merchandises or services may be of involvement to clients. and the scheme to utilize in gross revenues. communications and concern development. [ 1 ] It is an incorporate procedure through which companies create value for clients and construct strong client relationships in order to capture value from clients in return. Selling is used to place the client. to maintain the client. and to fulfill the client. With the client as the focal point of its activities. it can be concluded that marketing direction is one of the major constituents of concern direction. The development of selling was caused due to mature markets and overcapacities in the last 2-3 centuries. Companies so shifted the focal point from production to the client in order to remain profitable. The term selling construct holds that accomplishing organisational ends depends on cognizing the demands and wants of mark markets and presenting the coveted satisfactions. [ 2 ] It proposes that in order to fulfill its organisational aims. an organisation should expect the demands and wants of consumers and fulfill these more efficaciously than rivals. 2. Marketing direction orientations Ã¢â¬â An organisation with a market orientation focuses its attempts on 1 ) continuously roll uping information about customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands and competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ capablenesss. 2 ) sharing this information across sections. and 3 ) utilizing the information to make client value. 3. The market orientation merely defines an organisation that understands the importance of client demands. makes an attempt to supply merchandises of high value to its clients. and markets its merchandises and services in a co-ordinated holistic plan across all sections. In what we call the Ã¢â¬Å"Marketing Concept. Ã¢â¬ the company embraces a doctrine that the Ã¢â¬Å"Customer is King. Ã¢â¬ The Marketing Concept is an attitude. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a doctrine that is driven down throughout the organisation from the really top of the direction construction. The Marketing Concept communicates that Ã¢â¬Å"the client is king. Ã¢â¬ Everything that the company does focal points on the client. Via the Marketing Concept. a company makes every attempt to outdo understand the wants and demands of its mark market and to make want-satisfying goods that best carry through the demands of that mark market and to make this better than the competition. The term selling construct holds that accomplishing organisational ends depends on cognizing the demands and wants of mark markets and presenting the coveted satisfactions. [ 2 ] It proposes that in order to fulfill its organisational aims. an organisation should expect the demands and wants of consumers and fulfill these more efficaciously than rivals. 4. Partner relationship direction Ã¢â¬â is a concern scheme for bettering communicating between companies and their channel spouses. 5. Importance and procedure of Customer Relationship Management ( CRM ) Ã¢â¬â is a company-wide concern scheme designed to cut down costs and increase profitableness by solidifying client satisfaction. trueness. and protagonism. True CRM brings together information from all informations beginnings within an organisation ( and where appropriate. from outside the organisation ) to give one. holistic position of each client in existent clip. This allows client confronting employees in such countries as gross revenues. client support. and selling to do speedy yet informed determinations on everything from cross-selling and upselling chances to aim selling schemes to competitory placement tactics. Course Objective 2 Ã¢â¬â Appreciate the importance of moralss and societal duty in selling. ( Chapter 20 ) Differences between consumerism and environmentalism Ã¢â¬â is a societal and economic order that is based on the systematic creative activity and fosterage of a desire to buy goods or services in of all time greater sums. environmentalism Ã¢â¬â is a wide doctrine and societal motion sing concerns for environmental preservation and betterment of the province of the environment. 1. Sustainable selling rules2. Role of moralss and corporate duty Course Objective 3 Ã¢â¬â Understand the function of marketing within an organisation and how selling relates to and drive customer-focused company scheme.( Chapter 2 ) 1. MarketingÃ¢â¬â¢s function in company broad strategic planning2. Difference between value concatenation and value bringing web 3. Contentss of a selling program and general thought of what is included in each subdivision 4. Consumer ( or customer-driven ) oriented selling scheme Course Objective 4 Ã¢â¬â Describe the impact of external and internal environments on selling scheme. ( Chapters 3. 18 ) 1. Major histrions in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s microenvironment2. Major forces in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s macroenvironment3. Competitive places Course Objective 5 Ã¢â¬â Demonstrate ability to analyse. synthesise and incorporate cardinal selling construct of market research. consumer behaviour. cleavage. aiming and positioning on practical state of affairss. ( Chapters 4. 5. 7 ) 1. Difference between a selling information system and selling intelligence 2. Psychological factors impacting a personÃ¢â¬â¢s purchasing picks 3. Marketing aiming schemes Course Objective 6 Ã¢â¬â Define and use the selling processes implicit in merchandise. monetary value. topographic point. and publicity determinations. ( Chapters 8. 9. 10. 12. 14 ) 1. Merchandise and service categorizations2. Three degrees of merchandises3. Branding schemes4. Customer equity5. Features of servicesmerchandise life rhythm schemes6. Role of net incomes in presenting client value7. Puting monetary values based on client perceptual experiences of value8. Differences between direct and indirect selling channels Part III Ã¢â¬â Short Essay Responses ( 25 per centum ) There are six short essay response inquiries ; but you need to finish ONLY FIVE. All of the short essay inquiries are looking for something specific and may affect a listing of stairss or phases in a selling procedure. It will be hard for you to reply these inquiries unless you know the stuff. You do non hold to utilize the exact nomenclature. but you do hold to show you know the stairss or phases for maximal recognition. Your essay responses need to be recorded on the Answer Sheet in the infinite provided ( about l/3 page ) . but if you need extra room you may utilize the rear of the Answer Sheet. Be certain to tag the continued inquiry figure clearly. Leave the essay inquiry you are jumping space. Each short essay response is deserving 5 points. Chapter( one inquiry per chapter )Marketing construct to be tested2Elementss in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s microenvironment and why each group is of import to make value 20Be prepared to call a company you believe patterns enlightened selling and support your choice 8Importance and choice of the four trade name scheme determinations. 8Features of services9Selling schemes for each phase of the merchandise life rhythm 11Pricing schemes for new merchandises There are three long essay inquiries that will necessitate you to unify multiple selling constructs and use them to a specific scenario. You ONLY Necessitate TO ADDRESS TWO OF THE THREE LONG ESSAYS. The more particulars you can show the more recognition you can gain. You may desire to sketch your response on the rear of the Test Instrumentprior to composing your response on the Answer Sheet so you can form your ideas and in the sequence you want them presented to your module member for rating. Each long essay inquiry is deserving 15 points. The long essay inquiries will cover the undermentioned selling subjects: 1. Integrated Marketing Communications Ã¢â¬â Be prepared to urge an IMC scheme including a selling communications mix and principle for a new consumer merchandise 2. Customer Relationship Management Ã¢â¬â Be prepared to sketch a CRM scheme for a little concern. including recommendations for specific CRM tools to capture client value for that companyÃ¢â¬â¢s most valued clients. 3. Cleavage. aiming and positioning Ã¢â¬â Be prepared to sketch the features of at least three distinguishable market sections for a national concatenation mentioning to the standards for effectual sections. Be prepared to support your picks. From all your selling module members Ã¢â¬â good fortune on this test and the balance of your academic calling.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Wallstreet essays "Greed is good. Greed is right. Greed works." If any three simple sentences could sum up the 80s, those are probably the ones. The 1980s were an age of illusions, one that was hedonistic in nature and self-loathing in practice. As Haynes Johnson recalls, it was "a society favored with material riches beyond measure and a political system whose freedoms made it the envy of every nation on earth." Released in 1987, Oliver Stone's Wall Street was made in the height of 80s greed and materialism. The film revolves around the actions of two main characters, Bud Fox and Gordon Gekko. Bud is a young stockbroker who comes from a working-class family and Gekko is a millionaire whom Bud admires and longs to be associated with. The film is successful at pointing out how tragic it is to trade in morality for money. The character of Gordon Gekko personifies this message, and yet receives a standing ovation at a stockholders meeting after delivering a "greed is good" speech. The underlying t heme of the movie, however, is that greed is bad. Economist George Gilder would say that individuals like Gekko who pursue only their self-interests are led, "as by an invisible hand," toward a greater welfare state. He says that people pursuing self-interest demand comfort and security and that they don't take the risks that result in growth and achievement. At the start of Wall Street, Bud Fox is young and very naive about the business world. He is a typical broker seeking new clients and offering second-hand advice regarding the buying and selling of stock. "Just once I'd like to be on that side," he says, dreaming of the day when he will be a corporate big shot controlling the flow of millions of dollars, like his hero, Gordon Gekko. In pursuit of his dream, Bud makes a visit to Gekko's office with a box of Havana cigars on his birthday in hopes of winning him over as a client. He wants to sell him stocks, and hopefully one day be like he is. B...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
PROFESSIONAL ROLES & VALUES - Essay Example 2). It is important that, as the FNP, she realizes the seriousness of the situation since Ms. R. is a developmentally disabled woman. She will most likely need lots of added support in order to help raise her childÃ¢â¬âand support must be gathered quickly, as she is only roughly six (6) weeks away from delivering her child. On staff there are many talented individuals who can definitely help this client. The staff nutritionist can assess whether the client is getting enough nutrients and so forth. The LVN can do simple things like take the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s blood pressure and measure her weight on a scale, and who can also educate the patient about what to expect when the baby is born. She can also possibly help the young woman in terms of learning how to care for her baby, since she wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have much help. The LVN will also stress the importance of routine prenatal care check-ups. The social worker will help a lot in terms of getting this woman with developmental disabilities the services she needs in order to have some moral support as she delivers her child. The nurse with a BSN in community health can possibly reach out to the young womanÃ¢â¬â¢s family members and stress the importance of keeping community and relationships at the forefront of everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. The obstetrician can be in troduced to Ms. R. so she knows who is going to be helping her possibly deliver her child. All these services will be relevant and helpful to Ms. R., but the key element is to ensure that she does get seen by these various team members in order for her to have the best experience that she can as she becomes a mother. she is frustrated with the fact that Ms. R. has not followed up properly or been followed up with to boot. Instead of seeking support or seeking outside consultation, this FNP has done a great disservice to her clientÃ¢â¬âas she was obviously not concerned to follow up herself on this case.Ã¢â¬ ¨ The nursing supervisor is still
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Analysis of the case study - Essay Example The worlds greatest magnificence things association, its principle compactors incorporate Estee Lauder organizations Inc, Avon, Mary kay lnc, and Revion Inc. LOreal has powerful administration, it has both top managerial staff and administration advisory group, Jean-Paul Agon, is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. It has more than 72,600 workers around the world. Has 43 creation plant overall and 146 conveyance focuses. Fiscally LOreal is stable; it is exceeding expectations all inclusive in creating and showcasing nonessential, aromas and individual consideration items. It has operation in more than 130 nations. In 2013 it reported 5.93 billion euros deals. It works 42 assembling plants all through the world, which utilize 14,000 individuals LOreal has done well in terms of creating business improvement however contention is getting the chance to be more uncommon. For representation, EstÃ ©e Lauder and Coty are both concentrating on China. Creating contention creating markets. At same time, creating markets, for example, China are probably chilling off. In any case, LOreal has the limit acknowledge absolutely new conceivable outcomes. LOreals weakest connection is their decentralized authoritative structure; it is greatly hard to control the organization on account of such a large number of subdivisions. Next, their overall revenue is altogether lower than of their rivals, (for example, Dior, Chanel, YSL, LancÃ ´m Estee Lauder in quality, and Nivea, Revlon and Vichy all in all business sector brands). Additionally, they oftentimes host to depend on third gathering retailers, which does not issue them the opportunity to control their business one hundred every penn. Notwithstanding of their solid rivalry. LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal does consistent statistical surveying .Also they publicize and advance items for particular target clients. Its advancement through skin care contraption Clarisonic displays its ability to meander outside broad thing orders to
Monday, November 18, 2019
Ecosystem Succession - Essay Example The Classical model of ecological succession shows that the "structural complexity and organization of an ecosystem increase and mature over time as succession progresses." The natural cycle of progression according to this model is shown below. The model above shows the natural cycle of progression of an ecosystem. The early successional stage is characterized by a few "pioneer species" and net community production is greater than respiration. The next mature stage shows an increase in species diversity, biomass, nutrients, food chains, and net production is equal to respiration. The succession slows down when it reaches equilibrium at the level of "climax" community. "Autogenic Succession is self-driven, resulting from the interaction between organisms and their environment." There are two types of autogenic succession. Primary Succession occurs on virgin or newly formed substrates, such as lava flows, alluvial deposits, newly exposed rock faces and glacial moraines. (Mackenzie, Ball and Virdee 2001) the Glacier Bay and Krakatau sequences are examples of Primary Succession. "Secondary succession occurs on disturbed ground where vegetation cover has been disturbed by external environmental factors like humans, animals or by fire, wind, floods. Succession from bare moraine to mature coniferous forest has been shown in areas left bare by the retreating ice in Glacier Bay, South East Alaska. This is a prime example of primary succession. Current estimates have shown that it takes 250 years for mature forest to develop from bare moraine. (Packam, Harding, Hilton, Stuttard 1992) The process involves colonization of the nutrient poor clay by mosses and shallow-rooted herbaceous species like mountain avens (Dryas sp.). These early species alter the soil conditions facilitating the colonization by new species. Nitrogen fixation is a free process in succession. Litter accumulation helps in soil development, which aids colonization by shrub and eventually tree species like Cottonwood and Hemlock. Marble is present in the area and the soil parent material shows a pH of 8.0 - 8.4. The development of Sitka Alder has a strong acidifying effect leading to a fall in pH from 8.0 to 5.0 approximately within 30-50 years. Alder nodules also fix atmospheric nitrogen, and the increase in nitrogen values of the soil is crucial to the initial establishment of Sitka Spruce. The Spruce eventually displaces the Alder, and it leads to a mature Sitka Spruce-Hemlock forest. In another 1250 years, the mature forest changes to Sphagnum-dominated muskeg bog in suitable sites. Krakatau Another example of Primary Succession is the Krakatau group, which lies over an orogenic hot spot in between Java and Sumatra. After the explosion in 1883, the present successional sequence was started on Rakata, and the smaller islands of Rakata Kecil and Sertung. Here volcanic ash sterilized the whole area. But the successional sequence, which started with a few blades of grass on Rakata in 1884, has led to a lush tropical forest over the century. The pioneer species included
Friday, November 15, 2019
History of Refugee Integration in the UK Is it accurate to say that the UK has a proud history of providing sanctuary for genuine refugees? In 1951, the United Nations passed the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (known as the Refugee Convention). The aim of this was to protect persons, in the wake of the Second World War, being returned to states and nations where they would suffer persecution. It was the first codification of a practice which is in fact centuries old; that of developed countries offering protection and sanctuary to individuals who suffer such persecution. Since its inception and ratification, the Refugee Convention has been viewed variously as a positive advance, and increasingly in recent years, as a hindrance to the United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s policies of migration control. Although no country has ever withdrawn from the Convention, this option has been suggested in Britain as a possible solution to the perceived problems relating to immigration which the UK faces. How is it, then, that a country that prides itself on its history of providing sanctuary and protection to refugees, can be contemplating such a withdrawal from the codification of immigrant policy? The truth is that the belief of the United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with immigrants is somewhat less appealing than the Ã¢â¬Ëproud historyÃ¢â¬â¢ of public perception suggests. Nor is this proud history the only myth relating to the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with immigration. It is similarly untrue to state that the UK is an immigration honey pot. The UK is certainly an attractive place for genuine refugees from persecution to approach. Official figures and patterns, however, suggest that the reality is somewhat different and that the scare-mongering and rabble-rousing employed by anti-immigrationists is somewhat misplaced. What, then, is a refugee? It is interesting that while persons and populations fleeing their homelands to escape persecution and suffering is as old as any civilisation, the term Ã¢â¬ËrefugeeÃ¢â¬â¢ is itself a relatively modern and highly specific term. One tends to think of Ã¢â¬ËrefugeesÃ¢â¬â¢ as any in-migrant to, in this case, the British Isles, whether they be fleeing political or economic persecution, or indeed, in some cases, whether they are simply seeking a better life in a new country. The modern, accepted definition of a refugee is to be found in Article 1 of the Refugee Convention, which describes a refugee as any person who has been considered a refugee under various other agreements, but more specifically, to a person who as a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951 and owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable, or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events is unable or, owing to such fears, is unwilling to return to it. There follows various provisions for a person so described ceasing to be classed as a refugee, for example where that person has re-availed himself of the protection of the country of his nationality. Having defined broadly what the statutory definition of a refugee is, the next question which ought to be considered is why such a person would wish to come to the UK? As shall be discussed, the UK has not always had such a proud history of offering sanctuary to refugees. This does not, however, detract from the fact that in the post-Second World War years, but even in eras prior to that, the UK has been seen as a very welcoming and attractive prospect for refugees. Compared to certain Western countries, both within Europe and also in the wider economically developed Ã¢â¬ËWestÃ¢â¬â¢ (Australia providing the most stark example), BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s policies (and policies should be distinguished from actual practice and results here) have been relatively relaxed. The exact nature of these policies will be examined. Aside from these, the attractions of the United Kingdom to refugees are that the Isles offer political and religious freedom and liberty. The fact that the Church of Englan d is part of the Establishment, this is less and less important in an increasingly secularised state, and anyway unimportant because of the primacy accorded to religious tolerance. Within the UK, refugees will suffer no systematic and State-sponsored persecution as they might elsewhere. As will become apparent, however, this certainly does not mean that refugees granted sanctuary within the UK are guaranteed freedom from such persecution at the hands of the grass-roots population. There is, then, an important distinction to be remembered when considering the history of Britain as a provider of sanctuary to refugees. This distinction is between the official State attitude to immigration and sanctuary, most recognisably apparent, of course, in legislation, and the attitudes of the population, all-too-often categorised by prejudices and narrow-mindedness, and manifested in attacks and effectively persecution of such refugees. The first significant period of modern British history in which refugees became significant is that covering the years, roughly, from 1880 until the inception of the Refugee Convention in 1951. During this period, which witnessed the two largest sudden occurrences of mass-population movement occasioned by the two World Wars, Britain found herself facing a new problem, sensitive and difficult both in humanitarian terms, and also political feasibility. The first major piece of British legislation which considered the issue of refugees was the Aliens Act 1905. Prior to this, there had been a series of Acts which sought to impose some sort of system of regulation of arriving aliens. Mostly, these required masters of in-bound ships to make reports of foreign aliens that they were carrying, and obliged all in-coming aliens to report to the Secretary of State upon arrival. The 1905 Act, however, introduced the first system of comprehensive registration and immigration control. The Act place d control of such matters firmly with the Home Secretary. The most striking aspect of this new legislation was that it offered, for the first time, the Home Secretary the power to deport aliens whom he believed to be either criminals or paupers. The first category is understandable and, but 21st century standards even acceptable; the second is not. The second major piece of legislation followed in 1914, with the Aliens Registration Act. This had more tangible effects on the accuracy of information relating to immigrants, as it made it compulsory for all immigrants over the age of 16 to register with the police. The immigrants were required to give detailed information to the police of their names, addresses, occupations and race. If any such particulars changed, immigrants were required to register such changes. There was also a registration fee. Although the legislation looks to be relatively favourable to immigrants, the reality was somewhat different. This was largely due to the fact that the Aliens Act was weakly enforced. As Winder states, it soon became obvious that the scheme was Ã¢â¬Ëclumsy and unworkableÃ¢â¬â¢. This, then, was the legislation that was in place when the Great War broke out. The effect of the war on immigration was to bring about a massive influx of refugees from Russia and Belgium who sought sanctuary from persecution. A disproportionate number of these immigrants, particularly from Russia, were Jews. The influx led to an anti-alien backlash amongst the British population, however, although this was not indiscriminate. The unfortunate Germans did, of course, bear the brunt of this, but these were rarely Ã¢â¬ËrefugeesÃ¢â¬â¢ as we understand the term today. The fortunes of the Russian Jews, for example, was different, on occasion, from that of the Belgians. Jews had been banished from Moscow in1890, and their migration was therefore enforced. They provided an example of a genuine refugee, and sought to enter Britain as an alternative to their former place of residence. It is estimated that between 1881 and 1914, the number of Jews arriving as 150,000. Although Britain had set up the Board of Guardians for the Relief of the Jewish Poor, the backlash was encouraged by the ever-increasing number of Jewish arrivals. This is perhaps an early example of the disparity between what can be seen as state charity and willingness to accommodate, and the uglier grass-roots antipathy to the effects of such policy. Ã¢â¬ËIn Britain, the newly arrive Jews were the chief victims of the anti-immigration lobby.Ã¢â¬â¢ Anti-Jewish feeling is what characterised the first half of the twentieth century, and this did not simply improve as the spectre of Nazi-ascendancy loomed. If anything, it became more institutionalised. In a report from the police of 1939 relating to the immigration of Jewish refugees, Jennifer Williams wrote that Ã¢â¬Ëit may be remarked in passing however that the tone of their [the policeÃ¢â¬â¢s] report is predominantly anti-Jewish.Ã¢â¬â¢ Indeed the UK as a whole was slow to respond to the persecution of the Jews in its immigration policy, providing perhaps the worst example of how the UK has failed in its treatment of genuine refugees. The most striking example of this occurred in response to the Anschuss; HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s annexation of Austria in March 1938. Britain was not alone, but her response was far from commendable. Along with other countries of first refuge, BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Jewish refugee organisation was quick to exclude future entrants and asserted its right t o select who it would support. In an example of state as opposed to grass-roots policy toward refugees, the British government Ã¢â¬Ëmoved rapidly to re-introduce a visa requirement to stem the influx of refugee Jews.Ã¢â¬â¢ Any discussion of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëproud historyÃ¢â¬â¢ of providing sanctuary to genuine refugees must acknowledge that in the European JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ most desperate time of need, the UK, both at government and at grass-roots level, took active measures to prevent immigration of the needy. The second significant period in a discussion of the relationship of Britain with refugees is that from the inception of the Refugee Convention in 1951 through till the late 1960; a period that witnessed an increasing dissipation of the British Empire. It was this phenomenon, rather than the enforcement of the Refugee Convention, that led to this period being seen as Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ period for refugees in Britain. Two significant Acts of Parliament in this period were the Commonwealth Immigrants Acts of 1962 and 1968. These characterised not only the attitudes of the state towards refugees, but also what could be, and has been, seen as an attempt to use the influx of immigrants to Britain in the post-war years as an advertisement for BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s generous policies towards refugees. It is here that another important distinction must be remembered; that between immigrants and Ã¢â¬ËrefugeesÃ¢â¬â¢ as defined in the 1951 Convention. During the period from the end of the War till the Act, the overwhelming majority of immigrants to the UK were not classed as refugees. They came, rather, from Commonwealth and former Empire countries. As such, they enjoyed relatively easy access to Britain and the influx of, for example, West Africans, has been well documented. In little more than a decade, it has been estimated that more than 300,000 immigrants arrived. This was accompanied by an increase amongst the population of violence towards such communities (the immigrants, of course, tending to congregate together in geographical locations). The immigrants themselves were not wholly without blame, and reports abounded of violence and crime orchestrated by the immigrants themselves. It was the response of the domestic British population, however, that was most problematic . The GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s response was a new work-permit scheme which, as Winder points out, had been carefully devised so as to Ã¢â¬Ëexclude coloured workers without discriminating against them too explicitly.Ã¢â¬â¢ The Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 was an example of the Government bowing to public pressure to take action, and as Rab Butler commented, it was a Ã¢â¬Ësad necessityÃ¢â¬â¢. It was in this period after the Refugee Convention that the distinction became significant between refugee as defined in the Convention and simple asylum seekers. The former were required to demonstrate that they had a Ã¢â¬Ëwell-founded fearÃ¢â¬â¢ of persecution at home. Political asylum applied, technically, to those who were evading arrest in another country on account of their political beliefs and where they could not expect a fair trial in that country. Subsequently, the distinction would become blurred and problematic, but in this period it was still a significant distinction, largely because of the provisions of the Refugee Convention and the Commonwealth Immigrants Acts. The 1962 Act required all Commonwealth citizens seeking employment in the United Kingdom to qualify for an employment voucher. Those without a British passport were also required to hold a work permit, which were not that easy to come by. The 1968 Act further tightened measures relating to immigrants. Und er this Act, potential immigrants had to prove that either they, their parents or grandparents had been born in the UK. The effect of this is obvious; for many, indeed most, this is an impossible requirement, and the Acts reflect the growing antipathy towards large scale immigration while at the same time, advertising Britain as a country that looked after and welcomed refugees and other immigrants. The final definable period is that from around the late 1960s until the present day, a period which has seen the number of refugees entering or seeking to enter Britain increase dramatically. The period has been characterised, again, by lenient and welcoming policies on the one hand, contrasted with stricter and prohibitive visa requirements and stricter interpretation of the Refugee Convention. The first occurrence in this trend was the legislation of 1971. The Immigration Act of that year rationalised the prior legislation relating to immigrants by dispensing with the existing distinction between Commonwealth and non-Commonwealth entrants. One of the growing problems in this period related to race relations between the British indigenous population and the immigrant communities. The Race Relations Act 1965 had made racial discrimination illegal, but this did not stem the growing hostility between British people and their new neighbours. Much of this hostility was based upon scare-mongering by various elements within the British landscape both at grass-roots level and indeed in high politics. Refugees were to suffer as much as everyone else under such hostilities. It was estimated officially in the House of Commons in 1967 that the non-white population of Britain would reach 3.5 million as soon as 1985. This turned out not to be the case, as the first census to show a non-white population in 1991 recorded the number to be less than 3 million. Such Ã¢â¬ËestimatesÃ¢â¬â¢ and figures were used by many both in government and the press to lobby for tighter controls and a stricter policy. There was, in this period, an increasing, and false, supposition that the number of immigrants (including refugees) would start to burden the welfare state unduly. This, of course, provided one of the biggest draws to all potential migrants to the UK; particularly, perhaps, to refugees. As Clarke points out, the post-war generation of immigrants would make demands on child welfare services and schools, they would make little demand on old aged pensions and geriatric care. Furthermore, the misconception about the overall scale and effect of immigration was based upon the fact that immigrant populations tended to be so concentrated in particular areas. It was, then, against this backdrop of increasing public scepticism and hostility, that successive British governments in the 1970s and 1980s had to balance the increasing toll of despotic regimes causing higher numbers of refugees, and the capacity of the state to accommodate them. Unfortunately, the balance seems to have tilted away from the refugees as the British interpretation of the Convention has tightened. It is worth noting that the Refugee Convention has never been incorporated into British law, and the British Government is therefore under no obligation to observe it. It was not until the Immigration Appeals Act 1993 that the government was even obliged to consider it. Under this Act, nothing in British immigration rules and practice should contravene the Convention. The process of application for asylum is protracted and uncertain. There are now strict requirements and high levels of evidence to establish that one is a genuine refugee. An example of this is the need to pr ove that one is the member of a particular social group. How does one prove this? Another example of the British governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ hardening attitudes towards immigrants is that those travelling to Britain through a third country are obliged to seek asylum there. This is, perhaps, a fair request, but it hardly reflects the policy of a country happy and willing to accommodate genuine refugees. The period since the 1880s has, then, seen a fluctuating level of concern for refugees seeking sanctuary within the UK. It cannot be said that Britain has a wholly proud history of accommodating genuine refugees, although her policies have tended to be slightly more lenient than her European and other Western neighboursÃ¢â¬â¢ (those seeking citizenship of the US must take a Constitutional exam to demonstrate their commitment to the country). It would be unfair to characterise successive British governments as being unaccommodating to genuine refugees, and there have been measures put in place genuinely aimed at helping such immigrants. Much of the suffering that immigrants have undergone has occurred once they have been granted sanctuary, at the hands of the indigenous population (both at grass-roots level and in the political arena), who have often been afraid of the potential draining effect of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s resources of such incoming populations, and who often forget the s ignificant economic input such immigrants actually make. On balance, it would seem that it is inaccurate to say that Britain has a Ã¢â¬Ëproud historyÃ¢â¬â¢ of granting asylum to genuine refugees. BIBLIOGRAPHY Statute Aliens Act 1905 Aliens Registration Act 1914 Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1951 Immigration Act 1971 Immigration Appeals Act 1993 Race Relations Act 1965 Secondary sources Brook, C. (Ed), The Caribbean in Europe (London, 1986) Clarke, P., Hope and Glory (Penguin, 1996) Halsey, A.H. (Ed), Trends in British Society Since 1900 (1972) Lawrence, D., Black Migrants, White Natives (Cambridge, 1974) Layton-Henry, Z., The Politics of Immigration (Blackwell, 1992) London, L., Whitehall and the Jews (Cambridge, 1999) Nairn, T., The Break-up of Britain (London, 1981) Winder, R., Bloody Foreigners, the story of immigration to Britain (London, 2004) Footnotes  Article 1(2) of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 28 July 1951  Winder, R., Bloody Foreigners, the story of immigration to Britain (London, 2004), p202  Winder, p178  Winder, p195  J. Willians, Memorandum, 3 August 1939, quoted in London, L., Whitehall and the Jews (Cambridge, 1999), p278  London, p58  Ibid  Winder, p283  Ibid  Clarke, P., Hope and Glory (Penguin, 1996), p326  Ibid