Thursday, November 28, 2019
Principles of Marketing (MRKT 310) Study Guide Essay Essay Overview Welcome to the Student Study Guide for Spring 2010. This papers will help you analyze throughout the semester and as you prepare for the common concluding test required for all subdivisions of MRKT 310. Your module member has been instrumental in the design of this trial. Continue to seek his or her aid understanding the stuff as the semester progresses. Many of the text constructs are non included in the concluding test and your module member through written assignments. instance surveies. conferences. or other methods will measure your apprehension of them. We will write a custom essay sample on Principles of Marketing (MRKT 310) Study Guide Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Principles of Marketing (MRKT 310) Study Guide Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Principles of Marketing (MRKT 310) Study Guide Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer UMUC requires all proctored concluding test in the School of Undergraduate Studies be closed book. Therefore. no notes or other survey AIDSs will be allowed in the testing centre. This is a comprehensive concluding test covering the full class. All policies and processs required by UMUC and the testing centre apply. For those of you taking the paper and pencil version of the concluding test. there are two versions ( Version A and Version B ) each dwelling of an eight-page Test Instrument and a six-page Answer Sheet ( pages 9 through 14 ) . You may happen it utile to detach the Answer Sheet from the Test Instrument to let you easier entree to both paperss. Write your name and subdivision figure ( e. g. . 6980. 6981. 6982. etc. ) on the Answer Sheet. You may compose on the trial instrument. but lone responses on the Answer Sheet will be graded. For those of you taking the on-line version of the concluding test. all instructions will be noted on your computing machine screen. The on-line concluding test is indistinguishable to the paper-and-pencil version except for the inquiry order. We strongly promote you to subscribe up for the on-line version if it is available at your proving site. Please be warned that this is non an easy trial and you should be prepared to pass the full three-hour clip allocation at your proctored testing centre. Most of your clip should be spent on the short and long essays. Do non brood on the definitions and the multiple-choice subdivisions. You will either cognize them or you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t. depending on your readying. and you will blow valuable clip you will necessitate for the essays. You should be having this common pupil survey usher at the beginning of the semester. Print it out and maintain it near at manus. Be certain to reexamine it carefully and inquire your module member any clear uping inquiries on either trial format or content prior to the first twenty-four hours of finals hebdomad. Once finals hebdomad has begun. your module member will non be able to reply any inquiries sing the concluding test. When you finish your test. return BOTH the Test Instrument and your completed Answer Sheet to your monitor. Answer Sheets returned without the Test Instrument will non be graded. Part I Ã¢â¬â Definitions ( 25 per centum ) You will necessitate to cognize the definitions for 25 selling footings. You will read the definition and choose the right reply from the Word Bank. Then. publish the figure of the right term on your reply sheet. Following is the exact Word Bank as it will look on your concluding test. WORD BANKAll correct footings for the above 25 statements can be found on this list. 1. Brand 2. value proposition 3. gross revenues publicity 4. adulthood 5. motivation 6. economic environment 7. microenvironment 8. direct selling 9. consumer perceived value 10. life style 11. selling mix 12. market cleavage 13. consumer market 14. Marketing information system 15. merchandise mix 16. value bringing web 17. SWOT analysis 18. intensive distribution 19. monetary value snap 20. placement 21. commercialisation 22. Product life rhythm 23. merchandise 24. mark market 25. civilization 1. Brand Ã¢â¬â is a name. mark. symbol. motto or anything that is used to place and separate a specific merchandise. service. or concern. 2. Value proposition Ã¢â¬â is an analysis and quantified reappraisal of the benefits. costs and value that an organisation can present to clients and other component groups within and outside of the organisation. 3. Gross saless publicity is one of the four facets of promotional mix. ( The other three parts of the promotional mix are advertisement. personal merchandising. and publicity/public relations. ) Media and non-media selling communicating are employed for a pre-determined. limited clip to increase consumer demand. stimulate market demand or better merchandise handiness. 4. Adulthood 5. Motive Ã¢â¬â An emotion. desire. physiological demand. or similar urge that acts as an incitation to action. 6. Economic environment Ã¢â¬â Economics is the societal scientific discipline that surveies the production. distribution. and ingestion of goods and services. 7. The micro-environment consists of stakeholder groups that a house has regular traffics with. The manner these relationships develop can impact the costs. quality and overall success of a concern. Suppliers. distributers. clients and competition. 8. Direct selling Ã¢â¬â is a signifier of advertisement that reaches its audience without utilizing traditional formal channels of advertisement. such as Television. newspapers or wireless. Businesss communicate straight to the consumer with advertisement techniques such as flyers. catalogue distribution. promotional letters. and street advertisement. 9. Consumer perceived value Ã¢â¬â The value of a merchandise is the mental appraisal a consumer makes of it. Formally it may be conceptualized as the relationship between the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived benefits in relation to the sensed costs of having these benefits. It is frequently expressed as the equation: Value = Benefits / Cost 10. Lifestyle Ã¢â¬â A mode of life that reflects the personÃ¢â¬â¢s values and attitudes. 11. Marketing mix Ã¢â¬â Product. monetary value. topographic point and publicity. Packaging. Peoples. Public Voice. Pamper. Politicss and Physical Evidence. 12. Market cleavage Ã¢â¬â Market cleavage is a scheme that involves spliting a larger market into subsets of consumers who have common demands and applications for the goods and services offered in the market. These subgroups of consumers can be identified by a figure of different demographics. depending on the intents behind placing the groups. Selling runs are frequently designed and implemented based on this type of client cleavage. 13. Consumer market Ã¢â¬â A defined group of consumers. Buyers and possible purchasers of goods and services for personal and family usage 14. Marketing information system Ã¢â¬â Set of processs and patterns employed in analysing and measuring selling information. gathered continuously from beginnings inside and outside of a house. Seasonably marketing information provides footing for determinations such as merchandise development or betterment. pricing. packaging. distribution. media choice. and publicity. See besides market information system. 15. Product mix Ã¢â¬â Range of associated merchandises which yield larger gross revenues gross when marketed together than if they are marketed separately or in isolation of others. 16. Value bringing web Ã¢â¬â A Value Delivery is a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s supply concatenation and how it spouses with specific providers and distributers in the procedure of bring forthing goods and presenting them to market. It involves utilizing competitory advantages external to the house ( providers. distributers. clients ) . 17. SWOT analysis Ã¢â¬â A scan of the internal and external environment is an of import portion of the strategic planning procedure. Environmental factors internal to the house normally can be classified as strengths ( S ) or failings ( W ) . and those external to the house can be classified as chances ( O ) or menaces ( T ) . Such an analysis of the strategic environment is referred to as a SWOT analysis. 18. Intensive distribution Ã¢â¬â Marketing scheme under which a house sells through as many mercantile establishments as possible. so that the consumers encounter the merchandise virtually everyplace they go: supermarkets. drug shops. gas Stationss. etc. Soft drinks are by and large made available through intensive distribution. 19. Price snap Ã¢â¬â Is an snap used in economic sciences to demo the reactivity of the measure demanded of a good or service to a alteration in its monetary value. 20. Positioning Ã¢â¬â In selling. placement has come to intend the procedure by which sellers try to make an image or individuality in the heads of theirmark market for its merchandise. trade name. or organisation. 21. Commercialization Ã¢â¬â is the procedure or rhythm of presenting a new merchandise into the market. 22. Product life rhythm Ã¢â¬â A new merchandise progresses through a sequence of phases from debut to growing. adulthood. and diminution. This sequence is known as the merchandise life rhythm and is associated with alterations in the selling state of affairs. therefore impacting the selling scheme and the selling mix. 23. Product Ã¢â¬â An point that ideally satisfies a marketÃ¢â¬â¢s privation or demand. 24. Target market Ã¢â¬â Involves interrupting a market into sections and so concentrating your selling attempts on one or a few cardinal sections. 25. Culture Ã¢â¬â Represents the behaviour. beliefs and. in many instances. the manner we act learned by interacting or detecting other members of society. In this manner. much of what we do is shared behavior. passed along from one member of society to another. Part II Ã¢â¬â Multiple Choice ( 20 per centum ) There are 20 multiple-choice inquiries from which you can choose a. b. c. or vitamin D responses. Be careful as most multiple-choice inquiries will hold at least two picks that look executable. Choose the 1 that is the most on point. The multiple-choice inquiries are both definitional and application types. Choose the right missive of your pick and compose it on the Answer Sheet in the suitably numbered box. The undermentioned list comprises those constructs from the text. which you can anticipate to be assessed via the concluding test. They are presented in order of the class aims. Course Objective 1 Ã¢â¬â understand how selling scheme creates a positiverelationship between a house and its clients. ( Chapter 1 ) 1. Relationships between demands. wants. demands Ã¢â¬â is the procedure by which companies determine what merchandises or services may be of involvement to clients. and the scheme to utilize in gross revenues. communications and concern development. [ 1 ] It is an incorporate procedure through which companies create value for clients and construct strong client relationships in order to capture value from clients in return. Selling is used to place the client. to maintain the client. and to fulfill the client. With the client as the focal point of its activities. it can be concluded that marketing direction is one of the major constituents of concern direction. The development of selling was caused due to mature markets and overcapacities in the last 2-3 centuries. Companies so shifted the focal point from production to the client in order to remain profitable. The term selling construct holds that accomplishing organisational ends depends on cognizing the demands and wants of mark markets and presenting the coveted satisfactions. [ 2 ] It proposes that in order to fulfill its organisational aims. an organisation should expect the demands and wants of consumers and fulfill these more efficaciously than rivals. 2. Marketing direction orientations Ã¢â¬â An organisation with a market orientation focuses its attempts on 1 ) continuously roll uping information about customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands and competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ capablenesss. 2 ) sharing this information across sections. and 3 ) utilizing the information to make client value. 3. The market orientation merely defines an organisation that understands the importance of client demands. makes an attempt to supply merchandises of high value to its clients. and markets its merchandises and services in a co-ordinated holistic plan across all sections. In what we call the Ã¢â¬Å"Marketing Concept. Ã¢â¬ the company embraces a doctrine that the Ã¢â¬Å"Customer is King. Ã¢â¬ The Marketing Concept is an attitude. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a doctrine that is driven down throughout the organisation from the really top of the direction construction. The Marketing Concept communicates that Ã¢â¬Å"the client is king. Ã¢â¬ Everything that the company does focal points on the client. Via the Marketing Concept. a company makes every attempt to outdo understand the wants and demands of its mark market and to make want-satisfying goods that best carry through the demands of that mark market and to make this better than the competition. The term selling construct holds that accomplishing organisational ends depends on cognizing the demands and wants of mark markets and presenting the coveted satisfactions. [ 2 ] It proposes that in order to fulfill its organisational aims. an organisation should expect the demands and wants of consumers and fulfill these more efficaciously than rivals. 4. Partner relationship direction Ã¢â¬â is a concern scheme for bettering communicating between companies and their channel spouses. 5. Importance and procedure of Customer Relationship Management ( CRM ) Ã¢â¬â is a company-wide concern scheme designed to cut down costs and increase profitableness by solidifying client satisfaction. trueness. and protagonism. True CRM brings together information from all informations beginnings within an organisation ( and where appropriate. from outside the organisation ) to give one. holistic position of each client in existent clip. This allows client confronting employees in such countries as gross revenues. client support. and selling to do speedy yet informed determinations on everything from cross-selling and upselling chances to aim selling schemes to competitory placement tactics. Course Objective 2 Ã¢â¬â Appreciate the importance of moralss and societal duty in selling. ( Chapter 20 ) Differences between consumerism and environmentalism Ã¢â¬â is a societal and economic order that is based on the systematic creative activity and fosterage of a desire to buy goods or services in of all time greater sums. environmentalism Ã¢â¬â is a wide doctrine and societal motion sing concerns for environmental preservation and betterment of the province of the environment. 1. Sustainable selling rules2. Role of moralss and corporate duty Course Objective 3 Ã¢â¬â Understand the function of marketing within an organisation and how selling relates to and drive customer-focused company scheme.( Chapter 2 ) 1. MarketingÃ¢â¬â¢s function in company broad strategic planning2. Difference between value concatenation and value bringing web 3. Contentss of a selling program and general thought of what is included in each subdivision 4. Consumer ( or customer-driven ) oriented selling scheme Course Objective 4 Ã¢â¬â Describe the impact of external and internal environments on selling scheme. ( Chapters 3. 18 ) 1. Major histrions in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s microenvironment2. Major forces in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s macroenvironment3. Competitive places Course Objective 5 Ã¢â¬â Demonstrate ability to analyse. synthesise and incorporate cardinal selling construct of market research. consumer behaviour. cleavage. aiming and positioning on practical state of affairss. ( Chapters 4. 5. 7 ) 1. Difference between a selling information system and selling intelligence 2. Psychological factors impacting a personÃ¢â¬â¢s purchasing picks 3. Marketing aiming schemes Course Objective 6 Ã¢â¬â Define and use the selling processes implicit in merchandise. monetary value. topographic point. and publicity determinations. ( Chapters 8. 9. 10. 12. 14 ) 1. Merchandise and service categorizations2. Three degrees of merchandises3. Branding schemes4. Customer equity5. Features of servicesmerchandise life rhythm schemes6. Role of net incomes in presenting client value7. Puting monetary values based on client perceptual experiences of value8. Differences between direct and indirect selling channels Part III Ã¢â¬â Short Essay Responses ( 25 per centum ) There are six short essay response inquiries ; but you need to finish ONLY FIVE. All of the short essay inquiries are looking for something specific and may affect a listing of stairss or phases in a selling procedure. It will be hard for you to reply these inquiries unless you know the stuff. You do non hold to utilize the exact nomenclature. but you do hold to show you know the stairss or phases for maximal recognition. Your essay responses need to be recorded on the Answer Sheet in the infinite provided ( about l/3 page ) . but if you need extra room you may utilize the rear of the Answer Sheet. Be certain to tag the continued inquiry figure clearly. Leave the essay inquiry you are jumping space. Each short essay response is deserving 5 points. Chapter( one inquiry per chapter )Marketing construct to be tested2Elementss in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s microenvironment and why each group is of import to make value 20Be prepared to call a company you believe patterns enlightened selling and support your choice 8Importance and choice of the four trade name scheme determinations. 8Features of services9Selling schemes for each phase of the merchandise life rhythm 11Pricing schemes for new merchandises There are three long essay inquiries that will necessitate you to unify multiple selling constructs and use them to a specific scenario. You ONLY Necessitate TO ADDRESS TWO OF THE THREE LONG ESSAYS. The more particulars you can show the more recognition you can gain. You may desire to sketch your response on the rear of the Test Instrumentprior to composing your response on the Answer Sheet so you can form your ideas and in the sequence you want them presented to your module member for rating. Each long essay inquiry is deserving 15 points. The long essay inquiries will cover the undermentioned selling subjects: 1. Integrated Marketing Communications Ã¢â¬â Be prepared to urge an IMC scheme including a selling communications mix and principle for a new consumer merchandise 2. Customer Relationship Management Ã¢â¬â Be prepared to sketch a CRM scheme for a little concern. including recommendations for specific CRM tools to capture client value for that companyÃ¢â¬â¢s most valued clients. 3. Cleavage. aiming and positioning Ã¢â¬â Be prepared to sketch the features of at least three distinguishable market sections for a national concatenation mentioning to the standards for effectual sections. Be prepared to support your picks. From all your selling module members Ã¢â¬â good fortune on this test and the balance of your academic calling.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Wallstreet essays "Greed is good. Greed is right. Greed works." If any three simple sentences could sum up the 80s, those are probably the ones. The 1980s were an age of illusions, one that was hedonistic in nature and self-loathing in practice. As Haynes Johnson recalls, it was "a society favored with material riches beyond measure and a political system whose freedoms made it the envy of every nation on earth." Released in 1987, Oliver Stone's Wall Street was made in the height of 80s greed and materialism. The film revolves around the actions of two main characters, Bud Fox and Gordon Gekko. Bud is a young stockbroker who comes from a working-class family and Gekko is a millionaire whom Bud admires and longs to be associated with. The film is successful at pointing out how tragic it is to trade in morality for money. The character of Gordon Gekko personifies this message, and yet receives a standing ovation at a stockholders meeting after delivering a "greed is good" speech. The underlying t heme of the movie, however, is that greed is bad. Economist George Gilder would say that individuals like Gekko who pursue only their self-interests are led, "as by an invisible hand," toward a greater welfare state. He says that people pursuing self-interest demand comfort and security and that they don't take the risks that result in growth and achievement. At the start of Wall Street, Bud Fox is young and very naive about the business world. He is a typical broker seeking new clients and offering second-hand advice regarding the buying and selling of stock. "Just once I'd like to be on that side," he says, dreaming of the day when he will be a corporate big shot controlling the flow of millions of dollars, like his hero, Gordon Gekko. In pursuit of his dream, Bud makes a visit to Gekko's office with a box of Havana cigars on his birthday in hopes of winning him over as a client. He wants to sell him stocks, and hopefully one day be like he is. B...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
PROFESSIONAL ROLES & VALUES - Essay Example 2). It is important that, as the FNP, she realizes the seriousness of the situation since Ms. R. is a developmentally disabled woman. She will most likely need lots of added support in order to help raise her childÃ¢â¬âand support must be gathered quickly, as she is only roughly six (6) weeks away from delivering her child. On staff there are many talented individuals who can definitely help this client. The staff nutritionist can assess whether the client is getting enough nutrients and so forth. The LVN can do simple things like take the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s blood pressure and measure her weight on a scale, and who can also educate the patient about what to expect when the baby is born. She can also possibly help the young woman in terms of learning how to care for her baby, since she wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have much help. The LVN will also stress the importance of routine prenatal care check-ups. The social worker will help a lot in terms of getting this woman with developmental disabilities the services she needs in order to have some moral support as she delivers her child. The nurse with a BSN in community health can possibly reach out to the young womanÃ¢â¬â¢s family members and stress the importance of keeping community and relationships at the forefront of everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. The obstetrician can be in troduced to Ms. R. so she knows who is going to be helping her possibly deliver her child. All these services will be relevant and helpful to Ms. R., but the key element is to ensure that she does get seen by these various team members in order for her to have the best experience that she can as she becomes a mother. she is frustrated with the fact that Ms. R. has not followed up properly or been followed up with to boot. Instead of seeking support or seeking outside consultation, this FNP has done a great disservice to her clientÃ¢â¬âas she was obviously not concerned to follow up herself on this case.Ã¢â¬ ¨ The nursing supervisor is still
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Analysis of the case study - Essay Example The worlds greatest magnificence things association, its principle compactors incorporate Estee Lauder organizations Inc, Avon, Mary kay lnc, and Revion Inc. LOreal has powerful administration, it has both top managerial staff and administration advisory group, Jean-Paul Agon, is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. It has more than 72,600 workers around the world. Has 43 creation plant overall and 146 conveyance focuses. Fiscally LOreal is stable; it is exceeding expectations all inclusive in creating and showcasing nonessential, aromas and individual consideration items. It has operation in more than 130 nations. In 2013 it reported 5.93 billion euros deals. It works 42 assembling plants all through the world, which utilize 14,000 individuals LOreal has done well in terms of creating business improvement however contention is getting the chance to be more uncommon. For representation, EstÃ ©e Lauder and Coty are both concentrating on China. Creating contention creating markets. At same time, creating markets, for example, China are probably chilling off. In any case, LOreal has the limit acknowledge absolutely new conceivable outcomes. LOreals weakest connection is their decentralized authoritative structure; it is greatly hard to control the organization on account of such a large number of subdivisions. Next, their overall revenue is altogether lower than of their rivals, (for example, Dior, Chanel, YSL, LancÃ ´m Estee Lauder in quality, and Nivea, Revlon and Vichy all in all business sector brands). Additionally, they oftentimes host to depend on third gathering retailers, which does not issue them the opportunity to control their business one hundred every penn. Notwithstanding of their solid rivalry. LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal does consistent statistical surveying .Also they publicize and advance items for particular target clients. Its advancement through skin care contraption Clarisonic displays its ability to meander outside broad thing orders to
Monday, November 18, 2019
Ecosystem Succession - Essay Example The Classical model of ecological succession shows that the "structural complexity and organization of an ecosystem increase and mature over time as succession progresses." The natural cycle of progression according to this model is shown below. The model above shows the natural cycle of progression of an ecosystem. The early successional stage is characterized by a few "pioneer species" and net community production is greater than respiration. The next mature stage shows an increase in species diversity, biomass, nutrients, food chains, and net production is equal to respiration. The succession slows down when it reaches equilibrium at the level of "climax" community. "Autogenic Succession is self-driven, resulting from the interaction between organisms and their environment." There are two types of autogenic succession. Primary Succession occurs on virgin or newly formed substrates, such as lava flows, alluvial deposits, newly exposed rock faces and glacial moraines. (Mackenzie, Ball and Virdee 2001) the Glacier Bay and Krakatau sequences are examples of Primary Succession. "Secondary succession occurs on disturbed ground where vegetation cover has been disturbed by external environmental factors like humans, animals or by fire, wind, floods. Succession from bare moraine to mature coniferous forest has been shown in areas left bare by the retreating ice in Glacier Bay, South East Alaska. This is a prime example of primary succession. Current estimates have shown that it takes 250 years for mature forest to develop from bare moraine. (Packam, Harding, Hilton, Stuttard 1992) The process involves colonization of the nutrient poor clay by mosses and shallow-rooted herbaceous species like mountain avens (Dryas sp.). These early species alter the soil conditions facilitating the colonization by new species. Nitrogen fixation is a free process in succession. Litter accumulation helps in soil development, which aids colonization by shrub and eventually tree species like Cottonwood and Hemlock. Marble is present in the area and the soil parent material shows a pH of 8.0 - 8.4. The development of Sitka Alder has a strong acidifying effect leading to a fall in pH from 8.0 to 5.0 approximately within 30-50 years. Alder nodules also fix atmospheric nitrogen, and the increase in nitrogen values of the soil is crucial to the initial establishment of Sitka Spruce. The Spruce eventually displaces the Alder, and it leads to a mature Sitka Spruce-Hemlock forest. In another 1250 years, the mature forest changes to Sphagnum-dominated muskeg bog in suitable sites. Krakatau Another example of Primary Succession is the Krakatau group, which lies over an orogenic hot spot in between Java and Sumatra. After the explosion in 1883, the present successional sequence was started on Rakata, and the smaller islands of Rakata Kecil and Sertung. Here volcanic ash sterilized the whole area. But the successional sequence, which started with a few blades of grass on Rakata in 1884, has led to a lush tropical forest over the century. The pioneer species included
Friday, November 15, 2019
History of Refugee Integration in the UK Is it accurate to say that the UK has a proud history of providing sanctuary for genuine refugees? In 1951, the United Nations passed the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (known as the Refugee Convention). The aim of this was to protect persons, in the wake of the Second World War, being returned to states and nations where they would suffer persecution. It was the first codification of a practice which is in fact centuries old; that of developed countries offering protection and sanctuary to individuals who suffer such persecution. Since its inception and ratification, the Refugee Convention has been viewed variously as a positive advance, and increasingly in recent years, as a hindrance to the United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s policies of migration control. Although no country has ever withdrawn from the Convention, this option has been suggested in Britain as a possible solution to the perceived problems relating to immigration which the UK faces. How is it, then, that a country that prides itself on its history of providing sanctuary and protection to refugees, can be contemplating such a withdrawal from the codification of immigrant policy? The truth is that the belief of the United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with immigrants is somewhat less appealing than the Ã¢â¬Ëproud historyÃ¢â¬â¢ of public perception suggests. Nor is this proud history the only myth relating to the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with immigration. It is similarly untrue to state that the UK is an immigration honey pot. The UK is certainly an attractive place for genuine refugees from persecution to approach. Official figures and patterns, however, suggest that the reality is somewhat different and that the scare-mongering and rabble-rousing employed by anti-immigrationists is somewhat misplaced. What, then, is a refugee? It is interesting that while persons and populations fleeing their homelands to escape persecution and suffering is as old as any civilisation, the term Ã¢â¬ËrefugeeÃ¢â¬â¢ is itself a relatively modern and highly specific term. One tends to think of Ã¢â¬ËrefugeesÃ¢â¬â¢ as any in-migrant to, in this case, the British Isles, whether they be fleeing political or economic persecution, or indeed, in some cases, whether they are simply seeking a better life in a new country. The modern, accepted definition of a refugee is to be found in Article 1 of the Refugee Convention, which describes a refugee as any person who has been considered a refugee under various other agreements, but more specifically, to a person who as a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951 and owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable, or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events is unable or, owing to such fears, is unwilling to return to it. There follows various provisions for a person so described ceasing to be classed as a refugee, for example where that person has re-availed himself of the protection of the country of his nationality. Having defined broadly what the statutory definition of a refugee is, the next question which ought to be considered is why such a person would wish to come to the UK? As shall be discussed, the UK has not always had such a proud history of offering sanctuary to refugees. This does not, however, detract from the fact that in the post-Second World War years, but even in eras prior to that, the UK has been seen as a very welcoming and attractive prospect for refugees. Compared to certain Western countries, both within Europe and also in the wider economically developed Ã¢â¬ËWestÃ¢â¬â¢ (Australia providing the most stark example), BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s policies (and policies should be distinguished from actual practice and results here) have been relatively relaxed. The exact nature of these policies will be examined. Aside from these, the attractions of the United Kingdom to refugees are that the Isles offer political and religious freedom and liberty. The fact that the Church of Englan d is part of the Establishment, this is less and less important in an increasingly secularised state, and anyway unimportant because of the primacy accorded to religious tolerance. Within the UK, refugees will suffer no systematic and State-sponsored persecution as they might elsewhere. As will become apparent, however, this certainly does not mean that refugees granted sanctuary within the UK are guaranteed freedom from such persecution at the hands of the grass-roots population. There is, then, an important distinction to be remembered when considering the history of Britain as a provider of sanctuary to refugees. This distinction is between the official State attitude to immigration and sanctuary, most recognisably apparent, of course, in legislation, and the attitudes of the population, all-too-often categorised by prejudices and narrow-mindedness, and manifested in attacks and effectively persecution of such refugees. The first significant period of modern British history in which refugees became significant is that covering the years, roughly, from 1880 until the inception of the Refugee Convention in 1951. During this period, which witnessed the two largest sudden occurrences of mass-population movement occasioned by the two World Wars, Britain found herself facing a new problem, sensitive and difficult both in humanitarian terms, and also political feasibility. The first major piece of British legislation which considered the issue of refugees was the Aliens Act 1905. Prior to this, there had been a series of Acts which sought to impose some sort of system of regulation of arriving aliens. Mostly, these required masters of in-bound ships to make reports of foreign aliens that they were carrying, and obliged all in-coming aliens to report to the Secretary of State upon arrival. The 1905 Act, however, introduced the first system of comprehensive registration and immigration control. The Act place d control of such matters firmly with the Home Secretary. The most striking aspect of this new legislation was that it offered, for the first time, the Home Secretary the power to deport aliens whom he believed to be either criminals or paupers. The first category is understandable and, but 21st century standards even acceptable; the second is not. The second major piece of legislation followed in 1914, with the Aliens Registration Act. This had more tangible effects on the accuracy of information relating to immigrants, as it made it compulsory for all immigrants over the age of 16 to register with the police. The immigrants were required to give detailed information to the police of their names, addresses, occupations and race. If any such particulars changed, immigrants were required to register such changes. There was also a registration fee. Although the legislation looks to be relatively favourable to immigrants, the reality was somewhat different. This was largely due to the fact that the Aliens Act was weakly enforced. As Winder states, it soon became obvious that the scheme was Ã¢â¬Ëclumsy and unworkableÃ¢â¬â¢. This, then, was the legislation that was in place when the Great War broke out. The effect of the war on immigration was to bring about a massive influx of refugees from Russia and Belgium who sought sanctuary from persecution. A disproportionate number of these immigrants, particularly from Russia, were Jews. The influx led to an anti-alien backlash amongst the British population, however, although this was not indiscriminate. The unfortunate Germans did, of course, bear the brunt of this, but these were rarely Ã¢â¬ËrefugeesÃ¢â¬â¢ as we understand the term today. The fortunes of the Russian Jews, for example, was different, on occasion, from that of the Belgians. Jews had been banished from Moscow in1890, and their migration was therefore enforced. They provided an example of a genuine refugee, and sought to enter Britain as an alternative to their former place of residence. It is estimated that between 1881 and 1914, the number of Jews arriving as 150,000. Although Britain had set up the Board of Guardians for the Relief of the Jewish Poor, the backlash was encouraged by the ever-increasing number of Jewish arrivals. This is perhaps an early example of the disparity between what can be seen as state charity and willingness to accommodate, and the uglier grass-roots antipathy to the effects of such policy. Ã¢â¬ËIn Britain, the newly arrive Jews were the chief victims of the anti-immigration lobby.Ã¢â¬â¢ Anti-Jewish feeling is what characterised the first half of the twentieth century, and this did not simply improve as the spectre of Nazi-ascendancy loomed. If anything, it became more institutionalised. In a report from the police of 1939 relating to the immigration of Jewish refugees, Jennifer Williams wrote that Ã¢â¬Ëit may be remarked in passing however that the tone of their [the policeÃ¢â¬â¢s] report is predominantly anti-Jewish.Ã¢â¬â¢ Indeed the UK as a whole was slow to respond to the persecution of the Jews in its immigration policy, providing perhaps the worst example of how the UK has failed in its treatment of genuine refugees. The most striking example of this occurred in response to the Anschuss; HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s annexation of Austria in March 1938. Britain was not alone, but her response was far from commendable. Along with other countries of first refuge, BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Jewish refugee organisation was quick to exclude future entrants and asserted its right t o select who it would support. In an example of state as opposed to grass-roots policy toward refugees, the British government Ã¢â¬Ëmoved rapidly to re-introduce a visa requirement to stem the influx of refugee Jews.Ã¢â¬â¢ Any discussion of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëproud historyÃ¢â¬â¢ of providing sanctuary to genuine refugees must acknowledge that in the European JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ most desperate time of need, the UK, both at government and at grass-roots level, took active measures to prevent immigration of the needy. The second significant period in a discussion of the relationship of Britain with refugees is that from the inception of the Refugee Convention in 1951 through till the late 1960; a period that witnessed an increasing dissipation of the British Empire. It was this phenomenon, rather than the enforcement of the Refugee Convention, that led to this period being seen as Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ period for refugees in Britain. Two significant Acts of Parliament in this period were the Commonwealth Immigrants Acts of 1962 and 1968. These characterised not only the attitudes of the state towards refugees, but also what could be, and has been, seen as an attempt to use the influx of immigrants to Britain in the post-war years as an advertisement for BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s generous policies towards refugees. It is here that another important distinction must be remembered; that between immigrants and Ã¢â¬ËrefugeesÃ¢â¬â¢ as defined in the 1951 Convention. During the period from the end of the War till the Act, the overwhelming majority of immigrants to the UK were not classed as refugees. They came, rather, from Commonwealth and former Empire countries. As such, they enjoyed relatively easy access to Britain and the influx of, for example, West Africans, has been well documented. In little more than a decade, it has been estimated that more than 300,000 immigrants arrived. This was accompanied by an increase amongst the population of violence towards such communities (the immigrants, of course, tending to congregate together in geographical locations). The immigrants themselves were not wholly without blame, and reports abounded of violence and crime orchestrated by the immigrants themselves. It was the response of the domestic British population, however, that was most problematic . The GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s response was a new work-permit scheme which, as Winder points out, had been carefully devised so as to Ã¢â¬Ëexclude coloured workers without discriminating against them too explicitly.Ã¢â¬â¢ The Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 was an example of the Government bowing to public pressure to take action, and as Rab Butler commented, it was a Ã¢â¬Ësad necessityÃ¢â¬â¢. It was in this period after the Refugee Convention that the distinction became significant between refugee as defined in the Convention and simple asylum seekers. The former were required to demonstrate that they had a Ã¢â¬Ëwell-founded fearÃ¢â¬â¢ of persecution at home. Political asylum applied, technically, to those who were evading arrest in another country on account of their political beliefs and where they could not expect a fair trial in that country. Subsequently, the distinction would become blurred and problematic, but in this period it was still a significant distinction, largely because of the provisions of the Refugee Convention and the Commonwealth Immigrants Acts. The 1962 Act required all Commonwealth citizens seeking employment in the United Kingdom to qualify for an employment voucher. Those without a British passport were also required to hold a work permit, which were not that easy to come by. The 1968 Act further tightened measures relating to immigrants. Und er this Act, potential immigrants had to prove that either they, their parents or grandparents had been born in the UK. The effect of this is obvious; for many, indeed most, this is an impossible requirement, and the Acts reflect the growing antipathy towards large scale immigration while at the same time, advertising Britain as a country that looked after and welcomed refugees and other immigrants. The final definable period is that from around the late 1960s until the present day, a period which has seen the number of refugees entering or seeking to enter Britain increase dramatically. The period has been characterised, again, by lenient and welcoming policies on the one hand, contrasted with stricter and prohibitive visa requirements and stricter interpretation of the Refugee Convention. The first occurrence in this trend was the legislation of 1971. The Immigration Act of that year rationalised the prior legislation relating to immigrants by dispensing with the existing distinction between Commonwealth and non-Commonwealth entrants. One of the growing problems in this period related to race relations between the British indigenous population and the immigrant communities. The Race Relations Act 1965 had made racial discrimination illegal, but this did not stem the growing hostility between British people and their new neighbours. Much of this hostility was based upon scare-mongering by various elements within the British landscape both at grass-roots level and indeed in high politics. Refugees were to suffer as much as everyone else under such hostilities. It was estimated officially in the House of Commons in 1967 that the non-white population of Britain would reach 3.5 million as soon as 1985. This turned out not to be the case, as the first census to show a non-white population in 1991 recorded the number to be less than 3 million. Such Ã¢â¬ËestimatesÃ¢â¬â¢ and figures were used by many both in government and the press to lobby for tighter controls and a stricter policy. There was, in this period, an increasing, and false, supposition that the number of immigrants (including refugees) would start to burden the welfare state unduly. This, of course, provided one of the biggest draws to all potential migrants to the UK; particularly, perhaps, to refugees. As Clarke points out, the post-war generation of immigrants would make demands on child welfare services and schools, they would make little demand on old aged pensions and geriatric care. Furthermore, the misconception about the overall scale and effect of immigration was based upon the fact that immigrant populations tended to be so concentrated in particular areas. It was, then, against this backdrop of increasing public scepticism and hostility, that successive British governments in the 1970s and 1980s had to balance the increasing toll of despotic regimes causing higher numbers of refugees, and the capacity of the state to accommodate them. Unfortunately, the balance seems to have tilted away from the refugees as the British interpretation of the Convention has tightened. It is worth noting that the Refugee Convention has never been incorporated into British law, and the British Government is therefore under no obligation to observe it. It was not until the Immigration Appeals Act 1993 that the government was even obliged to consider it. Under this Act, nothing in British immigration rules and practice should contravene the Convention. The process of application for asylum is protracted and uncertain. There are now strict requirements and high levels of evidence to establish that one is a genuine refugee. An example of this is the need to pr ove that one is the member of a particular social group. How does one prove this? Another example of the British governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ hardening attitudes towards immigrants is that those travelling to Britain through a third country are obliged to seek asylum there. This is, perhaps, a fair request, but it hardly reflects the policy of a country happy and willing to accommodate genuine refugees. The period since the 1880s has, then, seen a fluctuating level of concern for refugees seeking sanctuary within the UK. It cannot be said that Britain has a wholly proud history of accommodating genuine refugees, although her policies have tended to be slightly more lenient than her European and other Western neighboursÃ¢â¬â¢ (those seeking citizenship of the US must take a Constitutional exam to demonstrate their commitment to the country). It would be unfair to characterise successive British governments as being unaccommodating to genuine refugees, and there have been measures put in place genuinely aimed at helping such immigrants. Much of the suffering that immigrants have undergone has occurred once they have been granted sanctuary, at the hands of the indigenous population (both at grass-roots level and in the political arena), who have often been afraid of the potential draining effect of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s resources of such incoming populations, and who often forget the s ignificant economic input such immigrants actually make. On balance, it would seem that it is inaccurate to say that Britain has a Ã¢â¬Ëproud historyÃ¢â¬â¢ of granting asylum to genuine refugees. BIBLIOGRAPHY Statute Aliens Act 1905 Aliens Registration Act 1914 Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1951 Immigration Act 1971 Immigration Appeals Act 1993 Race Relations Act 1965 Secondary sources Brook, C. (Ed), The Caribbean in Europe (London, 1986) Clarke, P., Hope and Glory (Penguin, 1996) Halsey, A.H. (Ed), Trends in British Society Since 1900 (1972) Lawrence, D., Black Migrants, White Natives (Cambridge, 1974) Layton-Henry, Z., The Politics of Immigration (Blackwell, 1992) London, L., Whitehall and the Jews (Cambridge, 1999) Nairn, T., The Break-up of Britain (London, 1981) Winder, R., Bloody Foreigners, the story of immigration to Britain (London, 2004) Footnotes  Article 1(2) of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 28 July 1951  Winder, R., Bloody Foreigners, the story of immigration to Britain (London, 2004), p202  Winder, p178  Winder, p195  J. Willians, Memorandum, 3 August 1939, quoted in London, L., Whitehall and the Jews (Cambridge, 1999), p278  London, p58  Ibid  Winder, p283  Ibid  Clarke, P., Hope and Glory (Penguin, 1996), p326  Ibid
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Socrates Socrates, as known by Renault, was a beautiful creature. Not physically beautiful, but internally and fundamentally beautiful. It was he who said: When you assume the show of any virtue, you open a credit account, which one day you will have to meet or go broke (pp. 398). According to Renault, Socrates taught children free of charge. He often walked and talked with children and young men in the market. They discussed, or more accurately argued in a calm manner, various issues ranging from the sciences to religion. Socrates, however, usually avoided the subject of government whenever possible. Socrates believed his role in life was to teach a new understanding of virtues, it was these virtues that revolved around much of the controversies. The citizens thought that Socrates poisoned the minds of children. Causing them to lose respect for parents and elders. It was said that he did not believe in conventional gods either. This is shown by Strymon on pp. 181 and 182, "I imagine the in your own circle of friends, what we have heard is nothing out of the way. Where the teacher (Socrates) does not even worship the immortal gods, but sets the aside for his new divinities, one can hardly expect in the pupil much reverence for age and kinship in mere men." Parents blamed the lack of respect for elders on Socrates. In truth Renault says that he was only giving them guidance so that they may guide themselves and be free of petty problems. This guidance and advice caused these young men to re-think their attitudes. Indeed Alexias, Xenophon, and especially Plato were all changed by Socrates. They loved Socrates like a mother or father: pp. 392, "In a word," said Xenophon, "We love him." This love for Socrates was often misinterpreted as love being lost for family, through argument. Parents were so afraid of losing children to him they made laws. One law stated that Socrates could not speak to anyone under thirty years of age. Socrates defied this law, and was not punished. However after a while all his defiance's and warnings caught up with him. He was given the choice of banishment or death. He chose death. Many of his students wanted to free him, but Socrates made the choice against it. In the end Socrates is holding the glass of Hemlock saying farewell with his students, and friends. According to The Encyclopedia, Socrates was born around 470 BC and died around 399 BC. He greatly impacted Western Philosophy through his influence on Plato. Socrates was born in Athens the son of a sculptor.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Dogs, simply put, are manÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend. These fantastic creatures are extremely loving and undeniably loyal. Both dogs and humans are happier if we are around each other. A great deal of dog owners make their dogs a significant part of their family. Having a dog in your life awards you with numerous benefits. Dogs provide their owners with companionship and relief from loneliness, mental health benefits, physical health benefits and exercise options, built in home security, pleasure in knowing youÃ¢â¬â¢re caring for a living creature, and complete unconditional love. Companionship is probably the number one reason people adopt a dog. You know when you come home everyday you will always have a happy soul there to greet you. Whether you need someone to accompany you on a ride in the car, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re craving a little cuddling in your bed or company on the couch watching television your dog will always be there for you. When you own a dog you are never alone. In fact, just walking from room to room in your home youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be followed. When human beings disappoint you and you feel as you have no one you can spend time with you can always count on your canine. The loyalty of dogs is amazing and they always want to be by your side. There are many other benefits to owning a dog but for sure your dog will become your side kick. Dog ownership can have a very concrete effect on your mental and emotional well being. Just the fact that with a dog you never feel alone is totally beneficial to your mental state. Being alone can often lead to depression, and owning a dog can cure or reduce those feelings. It is reported that dogs elevate serotonin and dopamine levels in the brain which control pleasure and calming feelings. With these feelings comes a happier existence and lower stress levels. Besides the mental health benefits, having a low stress life can lead to physical benefits as well. Dogs can also be profitable to your physical body. Many studies show that dog owners have lower levels of cholesterol. Other studies reveal people who own dogs have lower blood pressure levels than someone that does not own a dog. Possibly this could be do to dogÃ¢â¬â¢s stress reducing capabilities. Also, studies have shown that people who own dogs have lower levels of anxiety during stressful situations than pet free people. Another added plus to owning a dog is a reason to exercise. If you are a responsible owner walking your dog is a necessity. While exercising your dog you are also exercising yourself, which is obviously beneficial. For many years people have studied the physical influence dogs have over people. All studies conclude that dog ownership has solid and substantial impact on the human body. Besides biological benefits, home security is another factor dogs play a part in. A dog can hear things that we as humans cannot hear. Anyone who owns a dog knows that no one or nothing can get five feet from their house without their dog alerting them to that fact. If a potential burglar is considering your home for a break in and they hear a dog barking, they will most definitely not go through with it. While a professional alarm system is subject to electrical and programming failures, a dogÃ¢â¬â¢s innate sense to protect their territory will never fail. A dogÃ¢â¬â¢s need to defend their home and owners is an integral part of their being. Owning a dog can make you sleep good at night and you can always rely on this failure safe means of security. People need security for their homes, but also need security for their souls. It is possible that human beings have a distinct need to care for living beings. Especially people without children, a dog can be like a son or daughter to its owner. Providing for and taking care of something that completely depends on you can create great comfort. Owning a dog can give someone great purpose and meaning in their life. In payment for taking care of your dog, he will give you complete unconditional love. No matter what your circumstances are your dog will always love you to the bitter end. Their love for you is automatic and definite. From the moment you pick them up and decide they are to become yours, they love you. As our life goes on our needs constantly evolve and change. However, love is something we need from the moment we are born until the die we die. And dogs will provide you much love as though that is their purpose on this earth. Dogs award human beings with many things. You will always have a friend you can count on. While human friends may come and go, your canine buddy will stand by your side forever. With this constant companionship comes a new mental state. Dog ownership can help you overcome depression, anxiety and stressful situations. While your mind is being soothed, your physical body can be assisted as well. By committing to physical exercise with your canine companion, you are living a healthier lifestyle. With added benefits of lower cholesterol and lower blood pressure, owning a dog can make your quality of life much better. The fact that your home is more secure because your dog will be protecting it will give anyone peace. Great purpose can be felt knowing your dog is completely relying on you. Just the feeling of total love your dog bestows on you will make your world a happier place. A dog can make your life complete. One cannot completely understand this statement if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t own a dog. A dog can and will make your life fuller, happier, safer, meaningful, and full of love. No wonder they call them manÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Determining the Costs of College How much does college cost? This question is tricky because it depends on the college you will be attending, as well as when you will be attending. Here are some important factors to consider. Private vs. Public The tuition at private colleges is more than double the tuition of a public college. According to the College Board, the cost of a years tuition in 2018-2019, plus room and board, averaged $36,890 for private colleges and $26,290 for public colleges. Inflation It doesnt matter is you will be attending a private or public university, the cost of tuition goes up every year. Many financial experts estimate that the cost of college will increase at approximately 6% each year over the next 10 years. Financial Aid Just thinking about the rising costs of college tuition is enough to make your head spin. Before worrying that you will never be able to afford a years worth of college tuition, let alone four years, consider these two words: financial aid. Financial aid is available to those who need it. And, the good news is that there is a lot of it. Grants, scholarships, student loans, and work-study programs, will help to cover the cost of college. All you have to do is educate yourself in regards to how aid works and how you can get it.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Turn Over Rate For The Texas Retail Industry Describe HypothesisThe Texas economy relies on the retail industry is a vibrant part of the Texas economy. The Texas retail turnover rate has also affected the economy through seasonal employment. The turnover rate is important as companies spend a tremendous amount of money training new employees. The mean turnover rate for the Texas retail industry is 13%. The null hypothesis is the turnover rate for the Texas retail industry is 13%. The alternate hypothesis is the turnover rate is not equal to 13%.Formulation of Numerical and Verbal HypothesisHo: ÃÅ½Ã ¼ = 13 %H1: ÃÅ½Ã ¼ Ã ¢Ãâ° 13 %Level of significance, a=.01The null hypothesis is the mean is not different from 13%, but equals to 13%. The alternate hypothesis is the mean is not equal to 13%. The level of significance is .01, which is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. The level of significance, which is alpha, equals .01.English: Galton Box (demonstrates normal distribut...Performance of the Five-Step Hypoth esis TestThe first step in hypothesis testing is to establish the null (Ho) and the alternate hypothesis (H1). The hypothesis that the group affirms is that there is average turnover rate of 13% in the Texas retail industry. The null hypothesis is the population mean is 13%. The alternate hypothesis is ÃâÃâThe mean is different from 13% or the mean is not 13%. Both hypotheses are written:Ho: ÃÅ½Ã ¼ = 13 %H1: ÃÅ½Ã ¼ Ã ¢Ãâ° 13 %This is a two-tailed test because the group thought that a one-tailed test was not needed. The group also thought there was no need to state a direction, which would then make a one-tailed the most appropriate testing method. The next measure is to select a significance level. There is not one level of significance that can be applied to all tests. Most often, the .05 level is selected for consumer...
Monday, November 4, 2019
International Business management - Essay Example Here once this has been identified, details of the best market entry method are then discussed. As in the case of any market entry method, there are a number of possible issues that will be encountered. Hence these issues and problems are further discussed along with providing strategies to overcome these issues and problems. On the whole the paper will detail a market entry plan for a company. The chosen company here is Primark. Firstly it is crucial to gain a clear overview of the company. Primark has been known throughout the country for the excellent quality of the products and the low prices for the clothing. Primark was started way back in 1969 under the name of Penneys in Ireland. The company has worked its way up and has been able known for the continuing success. The company has grown from a simple first store Penneys in Ireland to the latest flagship store in Liverpool. The company showed immense success in the first year of its beginning and by the end of the third year of its incorporation, the company had as many as sixteen stores in Ireland and Northern Ireland (Primark, 2010). As years passed the company went on to move into Great Britain. The company had started as many as 18 stores in Ireland by 1973 and now had started as many as four out Ã¢â¬â of Ã¢â¬â town stores. Within the next year, the company has been noted to have started as many as 22 stores each in Ireland and Britain. Later in 1984, the company was known for the multiple acquisitions t hat took place. Primark had acquitted as many as five Woolworth stores. With years to come there were further expansions of the company and Primark showed immense ability and success. The company has been well received within the country. Entering international markets requires high level of strategy and planning. With the increasing levels of technological innovation helps create markets for new products and services. A mode of entry into foreign or international markets is the normally referred to the
Friday, November 1, 2019
Business analysis - Essay Example The company owns more than 700 stores which are operating in United Kingdom and more than 300 of these stores are spread in around 40 countries. The company possesses expertise and specialists in the production and selling of luxury, food, and clothing products. Marks and Spencer was initiated by Thomas Spencer and Michael Marks in the year 1884 in Leeds (M&S, 2012). Later, during the late 1990s, the company gained the status of being the first British retailer to earn a pre-tax profit of more than Ã £1 billion. Afterwards, within a period of two years, it was caught in the economic and financial crises which took many years for the company to recover. At the moment, the company is the leading retailer of UK and, every week, over 21 million people visit the stores of M&S. The company offers high quality, creative and great value products for home and clothing along with the food of an outstanding quality. The products of the company are responsibly sourced from over 20,000 suppliers from all over the world (M&S, 2012). Moreover, an M&D employee 78,000 people from and outside UK, and possesses an international business which is expanding on an enormous rate. The concept of business environment pertains to the environment in which a business organization performs its activities and functions. It may be defined as an environment which comprises of the economic, political, social, and legal factors which impact the functions and operations of business either directly or indirectly. These factors have a direct bearing on the activities of business processes (Richard Pelly, 2011). A business environment of an organization is of two types: This environment is related to the internal aspects of the organization and affects the functions and activities directly. It includes the elements such as man, machinery, material, management, and marketing (Francisco, 2011). These factors are controllable and can change the other