Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Common Pool Resources - Privatization or Collective Action Assignment

Common Pool Resources - Privatization or Collective Action - Assignment Example Regulating the manner in which oil is produced will ensure that it is well preserved and it can be effective as a pool resource. Privatization will ensure that oil production can specialized in accordance to its requirement as a pool resource. Oil can only be refined or obtained in particular areas and regions, which adds to the ideology of the resource being produced and refined through privatization. It implies that specialization (based on regions) is the best course of action for production (Ramanadham, 1993). Therefore, oil as a resource should be privatized. Forests require a collective effort. I say this because the general state of global forests is abysmal. This is a prime reason as to why individuals must do the best they can to ensure that the forest are preserved and developed to ensure that they are wiped out. Privatization would be inadequate because forests are required on a global scale and their maintenance cannot be done a few companies (Ramanadham, 1993). Developing a forest will take time and cannot be carried out by a few companies. Since forests can be developed in numerous areas, in contrast to oil, making it a collective action is the best measure of ensuring the pool resource does not run

Monday, October 28, 2019

Sean O’Sullivans Critical Reflection Attempt Essay Example for Free

Sean O’Sullivans Critical Reflection Attempt Essay Critical reflective writing explores various personal experiences by analyzing the social, political and cultural context that theyre written in. They enable writers to understand their values and biases. Through a comparative study of texts I can critically analyze the mode, genre, register, structure, audience and context. The texts â€Å"Transmutations Scientist (A revolutionary bio-engineering socio-scientific role)† and â€Å"The Parrot and the Pot Bellied Pig† are two texts I have chosen to reflect on. Due to the difference in genre both of these familiar texts are excellent examples of new age pieces of writing in the English genre. In addition I have also incorporated my text â€Å"Rapunzel Shaves for Leukaemia† to express similar textual similarities and to further show my development in professional writing. Through the idea of the satirical and narrative genre incarnate, composers can introduce responders to a hyperbolized understanding of a number of themes through a comedic nature. â€Å"The Parrot and the Potbellied Pig† is a satirical, fictitious short story that is one of many from the novel â€Å"Squirrel seeks chipmunk† by author David Sedaris. Sedaris being a successful comedian and radio contributor had an intention to write to a well-educated audience who appreciates  humorous anecdotes and the absurd idea of animals in strange adult situations. Through Sedaris’ use of Animal characterization he opens up a range of ideas and themes that cannot simple be done if actual humans were to be used. Through this technique characters are decontextualized and stereotypes associated with these characters are highlighted. Sedaris’ (2010) â€Å"What really drives me is the money. That, and the free booze. † (p. 119) quote suggests the Parrot is a stereotypical alcoholic journalist, but through the metaphorical use of the ‘Parrot symbol’ rather than an actual human, the idea is suppressed and viewed as a humorous form of literature rather than a personal attack on ones profession. Author Sedaris also attempts to incorporate a range of issues into his fable. Media sensationalism and racism are two main themes expressed in the text, through the clever characterization and situation of the story; these issues are brought into the light through a different angle of genre. The author displays the characters such as the Parrot and the Vietnamese Pot Bellied Pig to mimic the personalities of authentic real world individuals. â€Å"I see the,† the parrot said, and she scratched the word â€Å"self hating in her note pad†. (Sedaris, 2010, p. 121. ) Is an example of media sensationalism expressed through the Parrot as she interprets the Pigs retort to her question falsely and with a great deal of bias. In addition the theme of racism is clearly presented through the Pig, â€Å"He had been plump all through his youth, and the years of name-calling had not just shaped his adult life but deformed it† (Sedaris, 2010, p. 123. ) although this at first glance may seem like an issue of body image, I believe it includes racial connotations, suggesting the racism of the Americans towards the Vietnamese since the days of the Vietnam War. In saying this Sedaris was able to get away this idea due to the animal characterization of the protagonists. In conclusion the writers use of hyperbole accentuates the overall theme of the text â€Å"Pot Bellied Pig† being the obvious example extends an idea to the audience, thus making the text a form of entertainment through its satirical nature. Through the use of specific language features and humorous connotations the text â€Å"Transmutations Scientist† mirrors â€Å"The Parrot and the Potbellied Pig† although each text is a different genre. This text is perceived as an advertisement although it is of a fictitious nature. Through this genre hybrid from job advertisement an individual can really see a complex thought process the author has used to create such a text. The ‘Transmutations Scientist’ uses more formal language appropriate to the genre of an advertisement. This formal language is further emphasised through the use of scientific jargon used in the piece; â€Å"mutation†, â€Å"micromanipulation† and â€Å"conditioning† are example of this type of jargon used by the author. Although the jargon demonstrates a complex register for this composition, the actual purpose is to entertain audiences in a similar way â€Å"The Parrot and the Potbellied Pig† does. Thus, using the language feature of ‘jargon’ the audience is eligible to manifest in the comedic nature of the text. Similarly in â€Å"The Parrot and the Potbellied Pig† each text are presented as satirical compositions. In addition both texts are intended for a well-educated audience who appreciate a type of humour where they would have to think critically in order to understand the authors motives. In conclusion the text â€Å"Transmutations Scientist† parallels similar language features to the first text â€Å"The Parrot and the Potbellied Pig† through this audiences are given a greater understanding of the composers motives and incentives. Through critically analyse a particular text, another creative piece can ascend into a different genre. My text â€Å"Rapunzel Shaves for Leukaemia† demonstrates a form that has similarities to â€Å"Transmutations Scientist†; each text has a fairy tale register that has been appropriated into another genre form. â€Å"Popular supermodel Rapunzel partook in the ‘Worlds Greatest Shave’ movement to raise money for the Leukaemia foundation of Far Far Away. â€Å" (Appendix 7. ) As shown in this quote, it is clear I have made a clear transition between a fairy tale and a factual real world event. In addition, I have  LEGITIMATE FACTS INTO MY TEXT â€Å"EACH DAY AN AVERAGE OF 30 INDIVIDUALS WILL BE GIVEN THE DEVASTATING NEWS THAT THEY HAVE LEUKAEMIA, LYMPHOMA, MYELOMA OR A RELATED BLOOD DISORDER† (APPENDIX 7. ) THROUGH THE USE OF THIS TECHNIQUE, I CAN INFORM READERS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF A SOCIAL ISSUE AS WELL AS ENTERTAINING THROUGH THE USE OF HUMOR. ALTHOUGH THIS IMAGINATIVE PIECE OF WRITING ISN’T as reliable a the others as it was written at my own hand It still possessed a number of credible language features allowing the piece to convey its primary message, to entertain. A text can explore many different ideas and themes, thus creating it to  be a credible piece of writing. ‘The Parrot and the Potbellied Pig’ demonstrates extreme satirical view on social issues, whilst entertaining responders. ‘The Transmutations Scientist’ incorporates language features such as jargon and mixes with fairytale connotations to create an effective advert to humour audiences. In conclusion my text ‘Rapunzel Shaves for Leukaemia’ doesn’t include the structural stronghold of credible texts it shows that the transformation of a text can lead to more possibilities of genre. Each text encompasses a wide range of aspects that can be compared and contrasted in order to  transform a composition into a credible and purposeful piece of work. APA Reference List: O’Sullivan, S. (2014). Rapunzel Shaves for Leukaemia. Appendix 7. Sedaris, D. and Falconer, I. (2010). Squirrel seeks chipmunk. 1st Ed. New York: Little, Brown and Co. , pp. 118-129 Transmutations Scientist A revolutionary bioengineering socio-scientific role. (1982). New Scientist, p. 882. Appendices 1. Freedom What is Freedom? Freedom is being able to drive whatever vehicle down to the local grocery store and buy 100 cans of coke. Freedom is being able to sail your fathers’ yacht around the Greek Islands to share  a summer romance with your lover. Freedom can be voiced through a rage of mediums, such as travelling across the world to meet infamous Cuban Dictator, Fidel Castro and bask in his Fidelity. Freedom to me is showing my warmest feelings to anyone willing to listen, and share and retort, back to me. Today my com111 Tutor didn’t want to teach me how to incorporate the word beguile into a sentence. But I guess it was her choice, which is a definition of freedom. To the ancient Mayan’s, the Flamingo represents hope and freedom in their community, so the concept of freedom dates back to early history. I thoroughly enjoyed this exercise; I think I’m going to love this class. 2. Impressions of Wiradjuri Country Wiradjuri country is a vast beautiful land that people like me doesn’t get to explore everyday. I remember the first time I entered these parts, not knowing the wonders this land could offer a person like me. Gazing out the front window of the car, the blue haze of the magnificent Great Dividing Range took my breath away. As I passed through the thick forest down into the valley of this land, I stuck my head out the window so I could take in the sweet scent of the eucalyptus gum. 3. Playground. The Playground located on the corner of Brilliant and George St Bathurst was vandalised yet again by local University Students. Approximately 2am on Wednesday the 14th of March three University students were reported causing a ruckus and lighting fire to the swings in the playground. Although the Brilliant St playground is predominantly desolate and overrun with dead leaves, it still is an important part of the community. A local elderly man heard laughter from the park, whilst in his house that night working on his paperclip collection. So he called the authorities. â€Å"I wish the community will do  something to fix this nonsense† he quoted today. The park will still be open tomorrow despite this incident. So bring the family down the weather is going to be delightful. 4. The last time I saw my†¦ Never before have I seen something so incredibly cute, sexy and beautiful incarnate. She gazed into my very soul from the other side of the glass. I had never believed in love at first sight but this truly was. Instantly I knew I would want to spend the next 10 minutes with her. I picked her up, twirled her around and was about to taste her sweet lips, until she was abruptly taken away from me. I thought I was the  only one who would ever have her. I hate Seagulls. That was the last time I saw my sandwich. 5. George Brandis Attorney General Senator splits public opinion! Attorney General George Brandis quoted in Federal Parliament recently â€Å"People do have a right to be bigots†. Many are saying the senator is a racist pig, whilst others agree with the senators’ statement. â€Å"Senator Brandis has the right to make a case for the privilege of speaking freely† said one citizen agreeing with the Attorney General. The question is. Does Brandis have the right to influence the public opinion and condone such behaviour? Today the majority of the public  understand that the suppression of race hate laws are beneficial for the Australian Public. 6. Barbie’s Eulogy To our dearly departed, Barbie Although she was made of plastic and her boobies were fake. She held a place in all of our hearts. She was a role model to all the young women out there and some men. She always lived life to the full, whether it was lounging around in her dollhouse or being attacked by the family dog, she always did it with a smile on her face. Unfortunately Barbie was abruptly taken away from us, when the boys and I were a tad bored so we sprayed her perfect, slender body with lynx and ignited her with Damos’ lighter. My condolences to my grieving sister and Barbies newly widowed husband Ken. May her legacy live on. Rest in Peace Barbie. 7. Rapunzel Shaves for Leukaemia Blonde beauty shaves for cancer Yesterday, popular supermodel Rapunzel partook in the ‘Worlds Greatest Shave’ movement to raise money for the Leukaemia FOUNDATION OF FAR FAR AWAY. EACH DAY AN AVERAGE OF 30 INDIVIDUALS WILL BE GIVEN THE DEVASTATING NEWS THAT THEY HAVE LEUKAEMIA, LYMPHOMA, MYELOMA OR A RELATED BLOOD DISORDER. OVER 50,000 PEOPLE JOINED RAPUNZEL IN THIS MOVEMENT RAISING AN AVERAGE OF 8. 4 MILLION DOLLARS THIS YEAR ALONE. AFTER GOING THROUGH 40 ELECTRIC RAZORS  AND A HAIRCUT LASTING 12 HOURS EVENTUALLY THE 15 PEOPLE TEAM FINALLY REMOVED RAPUNZEL’S OVERWHELMING 20 METRES OF HAIR. 8. BIG ROCK CANDY MOUNTAIN APPROPRIATION IF EVERYONE WERE A MIDGET IN THE LAND OF NO SIX FOOTERS YOU’LL NEVER HAVE TO JUMP YOU CAN SEE OVER EVERY COUNTER AND NEVER LOOK LIKE A CHUMP 9. Powerful Images ‘Two cultures, one beach’ What a cruel male dominated culture I thought to myself, everything covered but her eyes. How could these poor women deal with this type of oppression? I can’t imagine living in a world where you couldn’t express yourself and be the women you wanted to be. Never be able to  wear designer labels or show off how your new belly button ring you got last weekend. If my husband saw me dressing like that he would kill me. What a cruel male dominated culture I thought to myself, everything exposed for the world to see, except the tiny bit of fabric covering her privates. How could these women live in a world where any male could gawk and gaze upon any women they wished like they were a piece of steak. And look at that Coco Chanel bikini she has on, does she not have any respect. If my husband caught me dressing like that he would kill me. 10. Powerful Images Journal Article ‘The Burqa† (Non-Fiction) When you see a woman wearing a Burqa, what is your first impression of her? Do you have an ethnocentric view that forces you to believe that because of her religion, she has no free will? Is her headscarf an indicator that she is involved in terrorist activities? Or do you assume that she is suffering from the inequalities of a male dominated religion? Since 9/11, there have been many misconceptions about Muslims and Islam. The media has failed at accurately portraying the Islamic religion and way of life. Islam is presented as a barbaric, vile, and oppressive religion. Furthermore, due to crude generalizations, Muslim women who  wear Burqa are stigmatized as subdued and in need of liberation. The Burqa is viewed as a restriction to a Muslim woman’s freedom to express her views and opinions, freedom to education, and freedom to drive. For a vast majority of Muslim women, this is the furthest thing from the truth. The Burqa does not symbolize oppression or suppression. To contrary beliefs, the Burqa is not worn only to keep the illicit desires of men in check. The Burqa is not simply a scarf or a head covering. Wearing the Burqa is a symbol of modesty and dedication. It is an outer manifestation of an inner commitment.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Fall of the Potato: Causes of the Great Famine Essay -- Essays Pap

The Fall of the Potato: Causes of the Great Famine Phythophthora infestans was the lethal fungus that infested Ireland's potato crop and eventually ruined all of the land it grew on. This time is called the Great Famine and has impacted Ireland due to its destructive extinction of the potato farms which caused disease, extreme poverty, and death. There are several circumstances to take into consideration when looking at the causes of the Great Potato Famine in Ireland. Due to the great dependence the Irish people had on the potato, it is clear how blight could devastate a country and its people. To understand the Irish people's dependence on the potato for diet, income, and a way out of poverty, it is necessary to look at several key factors that were evident before the famine. Factors such farming as the only way of life, rise in population, and limited crops explain why the people of Ireland relied on the potato. But not only do these reasons clarify why the famine hit the Irish people so hard, other important factors play into effect as well. By looking at the weak relationship between England and Ireland through parliamentary acts and trade laws, it is more evident what the causes of the Great Famine are and why it was so detrimental. The relationship between Ireland and England played a major role in the causes of the Great Famine. Ireland became part of the United Kingdom in 1801 due to the Act of Union (Edwards & Williams 19). Under this act, Ireland was placed under "the jurisdiction of the richest and most industrially advanced empire in the world" (Kinealy 33). From this act, Ireland's parliament was abolished and became controlled by England through political leadership established throughout the Irish state. A... ...remier. EBSCO. Roesch Library, Dayton, Ohio. 19 January 2004. - Edwards, R. Dudley and T. Desmond William. The Great Irish Famine: Studies in Irish History 1845-52. Dublin, Ireland: Browne & Dolan, Ltd., 1957. - Kinealy, Christine. â€Å"How Politics Fed the Famine†. Natural History 105 (1996): 33-3. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Roesch Library, Dayton, Ohio. 19 January 2004. - O Grada, Cormac. The Great Irish Famine. England: MacMillan, 1989. - O Tuathaigh, Gearoid, ed. Ireland before the Famine, 1798-1848. Dublin, Ireland: Gill & MacMillan, Ltd., 1972. - Poirteir, Cathal. The Great Irish Famine. Dublin, Ireland: Mercier Press, 1995. - Whelan, Kevin. â€Å"Pre and Post-Famine Landscape Change.† O Tuathaigh 19-34.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Implementation of K-12 Essay

Why add two years? This is the question everybody is asking. â€Å"We need to add two years to our basic education. Those who can afford pay up to fourteen years of schooling before university. Thus, their children are getting into the best universities and the best job after graduation. I want at least 12 years for our public school children to give them an even chance at succeeding. †President Benigno S. Aquino† These are the words that really made a great impact to me. Since, at first I was one of the many individual who also questioned this change of curriculum. But as I have watched the AVP that question was answered by these words of our president. I could say K+12 Curriculum is a good program of the department of education since it is presented that it will decongest and enhance the basic education curriculum. It will also give better quality education. It was also mentioned in the AVP the benefits of this curriculum such as; The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program will be instrumental in achieving the nation’s vision of high school graduates. The benefits of the K+12 proposals far outweigh the additional costs that will be incurred by both government and families. An enhanced curriculum will decongest academic workload. Graduates will possess competencies and skills relevant to the job market. Graduates will be prepared for higher education. Graduates could now be recognized abroad. The economy will experience accelerated growth in the long run. The Philippine education system will be at par with international standards. A better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socio-economic development. Learning comes when you better understand the things that are taught to you. As an educator I could relate to this since I have seen that children can interact more if they know and they understand the words or language you’re using. Thus making the curriculum decongested can really help the pupils to better understand their lesson and acquire more learning. I am a grade I teacher in Masulog Elementary School, and as part of the K+12 Curriculum grade I teacher use the MTBMLE (Mother Tongue Based Multi-lingual Education) as learning area and used as medium of instruction in this way children can easily recognized things, express their thoughts and for me understand their lesson so maximum learning is acquired. It also helps in bridging or transition Filipino and English as language of instruction introduced in Grade 3. For me I would say that I agree with the viewpoint expressed in the AVP, K+12 Curriculum can really alleviate the standard of education. It will also give every learner an opportunity to receive quality education based on an enhanced and decongested curriculum that is internationally recognized and comparable. Though there are issues and concerns with this new curriculum like competencies demanded of teachers for effective implementation of K+12 especially in grades 11-12 (pre-service and In-service Education, preparedness of DepEd K+12 BEP implementers (teachers, school heads, supervisors), transition period in the MTBMLE progression program, MT proficiency of teachers in the MTBMLE program, preparation of learning materials, literary and informational texts in K+12 and more. But, if education could be the only best option to secure the future of our youth, all of us are here to support this option.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

How many of you love cats and would like one?

I hope this speech will help you become sane and understand the craftiness in a feline. But for those who already own one I am sorry but all hope has been lost. I am here to talk to you about a club that I am truly committed to. It is called CHOW. I doubt many of you have ever heard of it but it stands for Cat. Haters. Of. The. World. Cats are the most selfish, evil eyed, greedy, filthy things in the world. What do you think cats are sitting around lazing around for? They are coming up with ideas on how to trick the owner and steal food if not how to kill Barack Obama and become the first evil eyed monster to become the president and who would be the first lady. They are cunning creatures who think they own the world. Well let me tell you now; they don't. Have you ever endured the aggravation that is given by a cat when it imitates what you do? Well I have done so many times seeing as there are about sixteen cats in the awful household next door no wait the parasites have also invaded my doorstep and under my dad's car, my garage and my roof. I mean these killers have left their fresh kill under our porch doormat to stop it being taken away by my old neighbour. The squeaking and the squishy, mushy feeling that is created on every step taken by myself isn't pleasant seeing as two weeks later my sister had revealed the horrors of the dark side that lay beneath our door mat. It will never be normal again. Having seen all that sticky oozy blood I can never step foot on that step ever again. Surely an old man of about ninety years old should be caring for his own health than his devil cats. Has he not discovered the real truth behind these supposedly â€Å"cute babies†. Approximately seventy percent of the Earth sees the reality behind the black fur and the huge eye sockets with coloured eyes. Some may say I have missed the fact that they do not harm, yet have you realised that they are in fact associated with witches. In fact there is a black cat who tries to pounce at me every time I try to throw a bag at it. As you may or not know I throw like a chicken so I don't really understand what the cat tries to do but I can tell you that it is not normal. Don't worry I have checked to make sure that no one is watching. It does not help that I am allergic to them but their really big eyes scare me. Once upon a time in a house in a town called Wembley, I watching TV and eating chips when an overweight obscure tomcat came and sat on the same scarlet coloured sofa as me. I had not realised until my sister had went into the dining room screaming.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on Kingdom Of Ends

Metaphysics is the study of pure concepts as they relate to moral or physical experience. The goal of the Grounding or the Metaphysics of Morals is to establish the â€Å"supreme principle of morality†. Kant’s purpose of this book is to develop a â€Å"pure† moral philosophy, a â€Å"metaphysics of morals† that relies on the priori concepts of reason, not empirical. Morality requires us to separate our rationality from our nature and act solely on the basis of logical principles. A morality based on reason would make sense to all people; Kant thinks it would therefore be superior to a moral system. Kant offers a formula to test an action, to see whether or not it is a pure motive resulting in moral worth. He calls this formula the categorical imperative; this may also be formulated as a requirement that we act only according to principles that could be laws in a â€Å"kingdom of ends†. People must apply moral laws to many different situations and ci rcumstances and developing a clear understanding of moral principles can help people keep track of their moral obligations. A clear understanding of morals can also help people to ensure that their motivations are pure. Actions are not truly moral if they only appear to conform to moral law but lack moral motivation. Kant tries to develop a moral philosophy that depends only on the fundamental concepts of reason. Kant presumes that moral principles must apply to all rational beings at all places and at all times. Moral principles must therefore be based on concepts of reason, as opposed to particularities of culture or personality. Moral principles come from reason and not from experience. Kant understands reason to be the source of fundamental truths that transcend culture and history. Rational ideas that make sense to all people, they are universal. If rationality is universal then it must be a superior moral law, â€Å"Kingdom of ends†. A secure understanding of morality must be based on ... Free Essays on Kingdom Of Ends Free Essays on Kingdom Of Ends Metaphysics is the study of pure concepts as they relate to moral or physical experience. The goal of the Grounding or the Metaphysics of Morals is to establish the â€Å"supreme principle of morality†. Kant’s purpose of this book is to develop a â€Å"pure† moral philosophy, a â€Å"metaphysics of morals† that relies on the priori concepts of reason, not empirical. Morality requires us to separate our rationality from our nature and act solely on the basis of logical principles. A morality based on reason would make sense to all people; Kant thinks it would therefore be superior to a moral system. Kant offers a formula to test an action, to see whether or not it is a pure motive resulting in moral worth. He calls this formula the categorical imperative; this may also be formulated as a requirement that we act only according to principles that could be laws in a â€Å"kingdom of ends†. People must apply moral laws to many different situations and ci rcumstances and developing a clear understanding of moral principles can help people keep track of their moral obligations. A clear understanding of morals can also help people to ensure that their motivations are pure. Actions are not truly moral if they only appear to conform to moral law but lack moral motivation. Kant tries to develop a moral philosophy that depends only on the fundamental concepts of reason. Kant presumes that moral principles must apply to all rational beings at all places and at all times. Moral principles must therefore be based on concepts of reason, as opposed to particularities of culture or personality. Moral principles come from reason and not from experience. Kant understands reason to be the source of fundamental truths that transcend culture and history. Rational ideas that make sense to all people, they are universal. If rationality is universal then it must be a superior moral law, â€Å"Kingdom of ends†. A secure understanding of morality must be based on ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

As Good as It Gets Movie Reflection essays

As Good as It Gets Movie Reflection essays As Good as It Gets was a great movie when it comes to showing how relationships develop. In the movie Jack Nicholson is a mean old man that does not like anyone but finds the need to start having someone in his life after he watches his neighbors dog. The woman that he starts wanting to have more and more in his life is Helen Hunts character. The movie is a great way to see how unique relationships are and how they develop. In the movie there are three relationships that develop, all of which involve Jack Nicholsons character. The first relationship that develops is between Nicholson and his neighbors dog. The relationship really got the whole needing someone feeling rolling in Nicholsons life. The second relationship that developed was with Helen Hunts character, the waitress. Because of Nicholsons OCD he went to her restaurant every morning to eat breakfast. He started to relative he likes her more then just his waitress and they start to develop their relationship more and more after Nicholson paid for her son to see a specialist for his medical condition. The third relationship that developed was with his neighbor, Simon. In the beginning Nicholson hated his neighbor because he was a homosexual and an artist. As the movie progressed their relationship developed more and more to where eventually Nicholson let Simon move into his apartment because he got evicted from his own. Out of the relationships listed the two relationships that develop in totally different ways would have to be between Nicholson/Hunt and Nicholson/Simon. The Nicholson/Hunt relationship was there ever since he went to her restaurant, it just was not a serious one. The relationship between Nicholson/Simon grew out of nothing into pretty good friends. So the Nicholson/Hunt relationship grew from a one sided relationship and the Nicholson/Simon relationship grew from hatred to friendship. ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The Worlds Newest Countries Since 1990

The Worlds Newest Countries Since 1990 Since the year 1990, 34 new countries have been created, many as a result of the dissolution of the U.S.S.R. and Yugoslavia in the early 1990s. Others became new countries as a result of anticolonial and independence movements, including Eritrea and East Timor. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Fifteen new countries became independent when the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) dissolved in 1991. Most of these countries declared independence a few months before the Soviet Union officially collapsed: ArmeniaAzerbaijanBelarusEstoniaGeorgiaKazakhstanKyrgyzstanLatviaLithuaniaMoldovaRussiaTajikistanTurkmenistanUkraineUzbekistan Former Yugoslavia Yugoslavia dissolved in the early 1990s into five independent countries: June 25, 1991:  Croatia  and SloveniaSeptember 8, 1991:  Macedonia (officially The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) declared independence on this date, but wasnt recognized by the United Nations until 1993 and the United States and Russia until February of 1994.February 29, 1992: Bosnia and HerzegovinaApril 17, 1992:  Serbia and Montenegro, also known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Other New Countries Thirteen other countries became independent through a variety of circumstances, including independence movements: March 21, 1990:  Namibia became independent of South Africa.  Previously, Namibia was known as South West Africa when the latter was officially a German territory.May 22, 1990:  North and South Yemen merged to form a unified Yemen.October 3, 1990: East Germany and West Germany merged to form a unified Germany after the fall of the Iron Curtain.September 17, 1991:  The Marshall Islands was part of the Trust Territory of Pacific Islands (administered by the United States) and gained independence as a former colony. On this date,  Micronesia, previously known as the Caroline Islands, also became independent from the United States.January 1, 1993: The Czech Republic and Slovakia became independent nations when Czechoslovakia dissolved. The peaceful separation was also known as the Velvet Divorce, after the Velvet Revolution which had led to the end of communist rule in Czechoslovakia.May 25, 1993: Eritrea, which was part of Ethiopia, seceded and gained independence. The two nat ions later became involved in a violent war over disputed territory. A peace agreement was reached in 2018. October 1, 1994: Palau was part of the Trust Territory of Pacific Islands (administered by the United States) and gained independence as a former colony.May 20, 2002: East Timor (Timor-Leste) declared independence from Portugal in 1975 but did not become independent from Indonesia until 2002.June 3, 2006: Montenegro was part of Serbia and Montenegro (also known as Yugoslavia) but gained independence after a referendum. Two days later, Serbia became its own entity after Montenegro split.February 17, 2008: Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia. The representatives of the Kosovo people unanimously agreed that the country would be independent of​ Serbia despite the objections of eleven representatives of the Serbian minority.July 9, 2011: South Sudan peacefully seceded from Sudan following a January 2011 referendum. Sudan had been the site of two civil wars, and the referendum received near unanimous approval.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Developing leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Developing leadership - Essay Example With the field of information technology changing rapidly, it is going to necessitate organizations to increase their reliance in technology in the future. This can be done through strategy although it is clear that the changing technologies shall compel organizations to change. Organizations have to invest in cutting edge technology for them to remain relevant. Organizational analysts have been using their domain knowledge to develop business models (Hesselbein & Goldsmith 2009). These models are made up of individual, departmental tasks. With growing information technology, architects shall be forced to assemble services and use workflow to automate executions at a faster rate in the coming years. The current trends show that resultant businesses in organizations shall be automated to a large extent. All the organizational employees and workers shall be compelled to use common vocabulary to collaborate and describe most of the organizational processes due to the impact of the comin g technologies. Forecast shows that it shall be a vital requirement for organizational workers to have more than the basic information technology skills (Yadav & Prabhu 2007). Going by the current trend, it shall be decisive for employees to have professional information technology skills in their own organizational portfolios (Rasmus & Salkowitz 2009). The chief executive offices have to use specialized software, which is customized, for the organization and equipped to monitor all the processes in the organizations. Information technology experts shall have to dwell much on developing software and hardware that can deliver (Prasad 2010). They shall also be involved in monitoring various aspects of the functionality of their product once it is deployed. The information technology firms shall be interested in improving these installations (Rasmus & Salkowitz 2009). Organizational processes shall need software and expertise for future survival. This shall constitute the concept of organizational proc esses management. Future corporate leaders: The leadership of organizations shall have to build on top of information technology basics. The future challenge of organizational leaders is to acknowledge that organizations will be run through linking individual, business tasks to develop a valuable product (Hesselbein & Goldsmith 2009). This will not necessarily take thousands of employees. It is likely that some future organizations shall outsource professional information technology services to improve quality and speed. Outsourcing is not a new concept in running of organizations (Buchen 2011). However, the need for specialized information technology skills to give multinationals a competitive advantage is set to rise. A telling example is sum sang group of companies. In South Korea, the elderly are adored according to corporate culture. However, the outgoing chief executive officer of Samsung group of companies has recommended a young successor. In a statement, he thought that, fo r the company to remain competitive in the dynamic market, it has to give room to leaders who are able to understand technology. Indeed age and gender prejudice has been associated with organizational leadership for decades (Chandna & Krishnan 2009). The youths have been kept out of leadership until the rise of the technological phenomenon. Organizations in the future shall have to depend on information techn

Friday, October 18, 2019

1. Interest Groups2. Political Party3. Bureaucratic Agency (Gov Essay - 1

1. Interest Groups2. Political Party3. Bureaucratic Agency (Gov. Agency) - Essay Example All the relevant and necessary information concerning this group are available in their main webpage ( As per the detailed website, some of the objectives of this group include mobilizing all the required financial and policy support to fight child marriages, enabling coordination and learning between groups working to halt early child marriages, and, importantly, creating global awareness of the damage that early child marriages portend to the individual, the community and the world at large. The group seeks to amplify the cries of girls often forced with or coerced into early marriage. The administrative and financial management of the group is the function of the Board of Trustees, whose members are equally legally responsible for the decisions and actions of the board. Aside from finance and administration, this board also safeguards the culture of the group and protects its good name. The Advisory Committee advises the Board of Trustees on the policies and strategies of the group. The Executive Director (currently Lakshmi Sundaram0 serves to ensure the group delivers on its stra tegies and draws ever closer to eliminating child marriage. Members of the group are called to exceptional commitment to good governance, accountability and transparency in the group’s goals of eradicating child marriage, work actively with other members, governments and relevant players on all levels towards realizing said goals, and contributing in any way in the group’s activities (Girls Not Brides, 1). The Girls Not Brides group received funding from donors such as the Ford Foundation, IKEA, Nike, Open Society, Skoll, the Dvaid & Lucile Packard Foundation, Kendeda, Sabanci, NoVo, Human Dignity Foundation, amongst other well-wishers (Girls Not Brides, 1). This site can be critical to one interested in politics in order that they may develop better comprehension and enlightened engagement in political processes by enabling one to know how such groups

Nursing 'Combating Compassion Fatigue ' Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Nursing 'Combating Compassion Fatigue ' - Essay Example There are five concepts of compassion fatigue that include emotional, somatic, cognitive, behavioral and spiritual concepts. All these concepts have certain warning signs to show that one is in the brink of experiencing compassion fatigue. With respect to the cognitive concept, warning signs include decrease in self-esteem, poor judgment, short attention span, disordered thinking, forgetfulness and disinterest in introspection. Generally, this means that the mental ability of a caregiver to perform their duties decreases. One’s colleagues will notice a reduced work rate and a form of laziness or disinterest in normal activities and a lot of negativity around the working environment. With respect to emotional concept, the warning signs could include distancing oneself from others, expressing anger to work situations, becoming apathetic, having a desire to leave nursing, going into depression and experiencing irritability. Here, a nurse feels that the normal responsibilities hav e become a burden and does not need such issues. In terms of the behavioral concept, the warning signs could include unresponsiveness, indifference, callousness, isolation and avoidance of emotionally charged situations. A nurse experiences a change in behavior in response to normal events or situations at the work place and acts like he or she is not in the right work environment even if they have worked there for years (Bush, 2009). With respect to the somatic concept, an individual will experience warning signs such as headaches, exhaustion, becoming accident-prone, becoming susceptible to infection and having difficulty in sleeping. Individuals feel physically exhausted and drained to the extent that they feel pain such as headaches, sweating, rapid heartbeat and dizziness among others. They may not respond normally to their normal duties because of the above symptoms. In respect to spiritual concepts, an individual will feel laziness to

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Response Paper Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Response Paper - Article Example They emphasized the point that capstone achievement of the doctoral program is more justified as a goal than mere reporting the research literature. While Maxwell tended to accuse Boote and Beile’s approach as ‘foundationalism’ (Boote & Beile, 2006, p. 33), Maxwell himself ironically appeared -as it is revealed through the argumentation of the authors- to the adamant foundationalist who, being deviated from the generative purpose of education, is more inclined to establish the value of knowledge on some normative foundations and â€Å"conceptual framework[s] that only discusses relevant literature† (Boote & Beile, 2006, p. 32). However, it is also true that Boote and Beile have failed, to some extent, to understand Maxwell’s counter argument behind the division between the dissertation literature review and research literature review. Indeed Boote and Beile’s flat allegation that Maxwell advocates, â€Å"Candidates need not present a thorough analysis and synthesis of the scholarship and research† (Boote & Beile, 2006, p. 32) can be refuted on the point that Maxwell preserves, though flawed, the right of performing an independent and thorough analysis in the literature review only for the author of the research paper. Here he is more concerned with the educational value of dissertation. Obviously, adherence to the non-generative conceptual frameworks of doctoral engenders the hollow ritualistic aspects of the highest educational programs. Therefore, Boote and Beile have taken the safest route to prevent such undesired result of reviewing the existing literatures in a particular field by granting the scholar’s independence within the conceptual frameworks of dissertation literature review and, at the same time, defying Maxwell’s approach to take prior literatures as â€Å"exemplar for the dissertation† (Boote & Beile, 2006, p. 33). In

Bill Levitt Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Bill Levitt - Essay Example Unquestionably, Bill Levitt, whose family had been in the custom home building business, envisioned how this atmosphere of new found prosperity and the lack of adequate housing in the overcrowded cities of the East could pave the way for mass production home construction that would forever change the landscape of America - Suburbia was born. Prior to the post-World War II era home ownership in urban America was primarily reserved for the affluent. Custom home building was the norm and the cost was prohibitive to many people. The vast majority of the urban population lived in cramped apartments and row houses and, for the majority, home ownership was only a dream. Levitt, however, seizing on his experience and knowledge of home building understood that through streamlining the building process and standardizing the home designs, he could mass produce homes affordable to the average family. Levitt, though, went a step further by creating massive housing developments on the outskirts of urban industrial cities which offered the prospect of middle class comforts at a price almost any young family could afford (Hales 1). Levitt did not stop with merely building affordable homes; He astutely created communities within these huge developments that offered the convenience of shopping, recreation, church and schools all designed and created within the developments. Levitt sold more than homes; he sold a new way of life complete with a sense of upward mobility and community to the burgeoning young families of the early 1950's. In order to mass produce affordable homes, Levitt drew on several different sources: the efficiency of assembly line production with interchangeable parts coupled with simplistic architectural designs the emphasized open floor plans and modern conveniences. "Levitt sacrificed individuality and custom design for low-cost efficiency" ('Building' 3). To accomplish this Levitt offered only a few models of home choices in each of his developments. Additionally to save on the cost of construction these single family homes were constructed on slab foundations instead of the traditional basement. He did not skimp on quality, however. All the homes constructed used quality products in the building process and the homes offered modern conveniences that appealed to his target audience of young families looking to own their own home on the outskirts of the urban hubs. A testament to Levitt and Sons Builders was the fact that "between 1950 and 1960, 20 million people were drawn to mass housing d evelopments on the outskirts of America's cities" ('Building' 1). To facilitate the low production costs of his homes, Levitt streamlined every facet of home construction. He assembled groups of workers that performed the same tasks over and over again moving from home to home within the development. One group would prepare the building site. One group would pour concrete. One group would rough frame. One group would apply siding. In short, each and every task had specific workers to complete each specific task. This ensured efficiency, speed, unsurpassed productivity and cost containment previously unheard of in the home building industry. Additionally, as there were limited home models constructed his company saved on material cost by purchasing in bulk. His building plans were so well designed

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Response Paper Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Response Paper - Article Example They emphasized the point that capstone achievement of the doctoral program is more justified as a goal than mere reporting the research literature. While Maxwell tended to accuse Boote and Beile’s approach as ‘foundationalism’ (Boote & Beile, 2006, p. 33), Maxwell himself ironically appeared -as it is revealed through the argumentation of the authors- to the adamant foundationalist who, being deviated from the generative purpose of education, is more inclined to establish the value of knowledge on some normative foundations and â€Å"conceptual framework[s] that only discusses relevant literature† (Boote & Beile, 2006, p. 32). However, it is also true that Boote and Beile have failed, to some extent, to understand Maxwell’s counter argument behind the division between the dissertation literature review and research literature review. Indeed Boote and Beile’s flat allegation that Maxwell advocates, â€Å"Candidates need not present a thorough analysis and synthesis of the scholarship and research† (Boote & Beile, 2006, p. 32) can be refuted on the point that Maxwell preserves, though flawed, the right of performing an independent and thorough analysis in the literature review only for the author of the research paper. Here he is more concerned with the educational value of dissertation. Obviously, adherence to the non-generative conceptual frameworks of doctoral engenders the hollow ritualistic aspects of the highest educational programs. Therefore, Boote and Beile have taken the safest route to prevent such undesired result of reviewing the existing literatures in a particular field by granting the scholar’s independence within the conceptual frameworks of dissertation literature review and, at the same time, defying Maxwell’s approach to take prior literatures as â€Å"exemplar for the dissertation† (Boote & Beile, 2006, p. 33). In

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Government in Preventing Environmental Crime Essay

Government in Preventing Environmental Crime - Essay Example South & Brisman (2013) state that some of the environmental protocols set by the international bodies include the banning of wildlife trade in endangered species under the CITES stipulations. It has been an instrumental international law that did shape the UK Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 amendments. Secondly, the illegal logging Act that protects forests from unthoughtful exploitation. Besides, the international protocols on the environment include banning of dumping hazardous wastes in water as provided in the Basel Convention on the Control of Tran boundary Act 1989. Committing any of the above crimes is liable to prosecution in accordance to international law; this should be seen being enforced by the individual government. Overview of UK Environmental Act Today, United Kingdom is among the countries that have signed several environmental and wildlife conventions are a renewed commitment to protect the environment from crime. Some of the provisions in the Countryside and Wildlife Act 1981 include banning of poaching, illegalizing unplanned logging and prevention of endangered species as provided in the CITES 1975 international protocol (Reins 2012). Since the Committee inquiry of 2004, the government commitment to protect the wildlife increased substantially, this was seen when the house of common began to deliberate on numerous amendments of the Countryside and Wildlife Act 1981, resulting in the more recent Wildlife Act 2012 Amendment. However, wildlife has been amended many times to respond to new crime threats that has become complex to non-specialist police. The year 2006 saw the enactment of law that prohibits the poisoning of birds because there were increased threats posed by poaching through poisoning. Moreover, the formation of the National Wildlife Crime Unit (NWCU) is a living testimony of the framework created by the government to enforce and repeal numerous Acts of the wildlife (Stewart 2012). However, some critics argue that wildlife crime enforcement has been greatly undermined by lack of definite sentencing guidelines for wildlife judges.

Language Change Essay Example for Free

Language Change Essay Theorists such as David Crystal have taken an open-minded approach to such change, explaining that â€Å"there is no predictable direction for the changes that are taking place. They are just that: changes. Not changes for the better; nor changes for the worse; just changes, sometimes going one way, sometimes another. † This statement articulates the prescriptivist view that language is an organic part of life which evolves and grows to suit the needs of its contextual time, just as living organisms do. Texts I and J show a distinct journey of change in the English lexicon between 1878 and 1965, ranging from graphological features through to the individual lexical choices and even the ways in which the audience of each of the texts is addressed. In exploring these texts, conclusions will be drawn as to the extent of the change that language has undergone, and what the causes, and indeed the impacts of these changes may have been. One of the most notable differences between these texts is their graphological presentation. Text I is composed in an expressly simple way, using a serif typeface which was likely to have been produced on a printing press, given that the text itself appears to have jagged edges, implying that ink had been applied to a block or stamp in order to produce the text something uncommon to contemporary means of printing. It is also interesting to note the complete lack of images, and the justified alignment of the text throughout. The text is not split up at all, other than into paragraphs and here is no use of italics or bold text at any point in the text. Text J, conversely, uses a graphologically complex structure, with an image to text ratio of around 1:1. Three blocks of text are accompanied by three images of men and women together, two of which display a dance scene and the last of which displays the onset of intimacy the desired goal of the text which was written as an instructional piece, seemingly aimed at the female gender. The images supplied are directly photograph, rather than illustrations, representing the development of technology and the availability of photography cameras and digital arrangement of photographs and text to create such a publication. Text J also makes use of italicisation in order to emphasise the lexical items â€Å"those† and â€Å"your. † The use of the lexical item â€Å"those† here is a deictic expression, implying a shared pragmatic and contextual knowledge between the producer and the reader of the text. This is echoed throughout the text, where an informal and friendly tone is adopted throughout. This is confirmed by the consistent application of elision, forming contractions of lexis such as â€Å"do not† to become â€Å"don’t†, showing the adoption of a primarily informal register. The method of address can be considered in terms of Norman Fairclough’s theory of synthetic personalisation, where first person pronouns are used to directly address the reader and indicate a kind of relationship between the writer and reader, where some shared understanding and common-ground can be found. This personalised and informal approach to writing is another area of particular development from the older text. Text I, in stark contrast to text J, adopts a formal register throughout, using latinate lexis to imply an ascendant status to the reader. This is connected to gender theories, where men are often considered to be more direct, and to write with a stronger tone of authority. Some of the lexical choices made in this text show the lexical development of language specifically, as archaic latinate terms like â€Å"effrontery† are found throughout the text. This is indicative of the broadly formal approach to this text, in opposition to the relaxed, informal approach within text J. Text I appears to adhere to the rules of the oppositional table in regard to written and spoken discourse, where a predominantly objective approach is taken, other than a single reference with the pronoun â€Å"your† is made to the reader. Other than this instance, the text remains entirely objective, referring in the third person to entities for the purpose of explanation. Text J, on the other hand, uses the interpersonal approach which is more common to spoken discourse to address its audience. In terms of the oppositional table, a further consideration can be made as to which side these texts sit more appropriately. This observation is made specifically in regard to the grammatical complexity of the texts, for which text I is more advanced. The use of more advanced punctuation such as the regular application of the semi-colon is exclusive to text I, where the aim is to extend the length of sentences in many places. The semi-colon is accompanied by regular use of commas, where sentences often run to such lengths that they dominate entire paragraphs. This shows the direct intention of the producer to create an undoubtedly written piece of text which was designed to be a basis of authority on a subject of which the producer holds superior knowledge to the reader. When examining text J for the same reasons, the opposing side of the table can be identified, where a grammatically simple text uses exclamatory sentences to deliver impact, and keep a short and chatty tone to convey the points at hand. Text J also uses some unusual starters to sentences, even using conjunctions to begin not only sentences, but paragraphs too. The purpose of these texts display an underlying social and contextual development over the time between the production of each of the texts, where an audience shift from the male to the female appears to take place, showing growing levels of egalitarianism among genders. The growth of significance of the female gender in the establishment of relationships has caused the male tone to be muted somewhat, opting for a more gender-neutral tone, even in a text which was principally written for the female gender, given its contextual location of appearance. While a focus on politeness in the content of the texts remains the same, the way in which this message is conveyed has undergone vast and wide-ranging development. A growth in the status of women through social and political development has given the female gender a more equal position in the audience position of writing such as this. Further to the contextual factors, the means of production of text has also undergone vast development with the advent of digital technology, increasing the ease of production of such texts, and expanding on the flexibility of presentational and graphological features.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Contribution Of Women In Handicrafts Cultural Studies Essay

The Contribution Of Women In Handicrafts Cultural Studies Essay The present study aimed to access the contribution of women in handicrafts. The current theme of research regarding handicrafts is to find out the type of embroidery work that women do in their homes and the problems and advantages that those women get from their embroidery work. While there is a great amount of research devoted to these topics, there is a lack of consensus on the contribution of women in handicrafts (embroidery). This study would add a significant knowledge and information to the existing one. Moreover in Pakistan scarce work is done regarding womens contribution in handicrafts so this piece of work would also be helpful in understanding the womens problems regarding their work. Handicrafts are the mirror of culture, tradition and aesthetics of the artisans who create them.   The real beauty of a piece of handicrafts surely depends on the clarity of material, the glimpses of a culture and touch of art.   Pakistan has a rich history of handicrafts. The entire wealth of timeless Pakistani handicrafts has survived through ages. The legacy of Pakistani culture promises everything- beauty, dignity, form and style. These handicrafts radiate an impression of glory, exhibit hereditary skills and show careful craftsmanship. (Shaukat, 2006) Handicrafts are most significant in terms of economic development. Home based work has represented an important economic action for women and men for the long time period. Now in recently years this market get progress and become internationalized but men get more benefit from it and move to the many profitable areas and the adaptation of these workers into unorganized sector have made the women more insecure and lead them to the exploitation and devaluation of their skills. (Gyanendra Dastidar, 2000) The facts suggest that more wealthy countries have less informal economy and developing countries more expansive one. Denmark has 18 per cent, Nigeria and Thailand 80 per cent informal economy in comparison to their respective formal economies. There is nothing insulting to admit the fact that Pakistan has an informal economy of about 70 per cent.  [1]   (Bhatti, 2002) Types of handicrafts Handicrafts involve the creation of a wide range of objects, including clothing, religious symbols and jewelry, and different types of paper crafts. (Malcolm Tatum, 2003) There are hundreds if not thousands of different varieties of handicrafts. The following list of crafts is included just for descriptive purposes. 1. Carpets Textile Pakistan has tradition of carpet-making going back thousands of years.   Weaving was a developed form of art in the Mohenjodaro in Sindh 4000-5000 year ago.   The handmade carpets produced in Lahore in the 16th Century are on display in museums in Lahore and elsewhere. Knotted woolen carpets with Islamic designs are part of the culture in both South Asia and the Middle East.   In Pakistan, Karachi and Lahore are important centers for the production of fine carpets. (Shaukat, 2006) Textiles such as bedspreads and shawls are popular, and the Sindhi and Balochi are famous for their mirror embroidery. Appliquà ©, Crocheting, Embroidery, Knitting, Lace-making, Macramà ©, Quilting, Weaving are also include in textile handicrafts. (Ruskin Morris) 2. Brass, Onyx Wood Crafts The Handicrafts manifested through Brass, onyx and wood, are known to maintain a proud tradition of handicrafts since 1994 in Pakistan and truly signifying the worth of the products. The art of carving on Metal Wood items are the real beauties of our hard working Craftsmen. These items are manufactured in small villages by diligent craftsman, and can easily be purchased in big cities. Such crafts include, metal lanterns, mirror frames, decoration pieces and more.    (Shaukat, 2006) 3. Pottery  Ã‚   The potter at his wheel is a common scene in every village, uninfluenced by modern glamour. Bahawalpur, Rawalpindi, Gujrat and places around also produce colorful pottery, painted after firing. The blue glazed pottery of Multan dates back to the 13th century with obvious traces for woodwork. Chiniot is also known for brass and iron inlay. Copper and brass work is done within the walled city of Lahore. Ceramics and glazed pottery are among the oldest art forms in Pakistan, dating back to the Indus Valley Civilization (2500 B.C.E.). The most popular techniques used include engraving intricate designs into the undercoating of the pottery and then glazing it with colored transparent glazes. Another popular technique is to apply blue designs over white glazes.   Pakistani potters are responsible for making the elaborate tiles that decorate mosques and public buildings. (Shaukat, 2006) 4. Woodcrafts Wood-carving, Wood-turning, Cabinet making, Furniture making, lacquerware include in woodcrafts. Pakistani furniture is known all over the world for its beautiful and intricate designs and the mastery of its craftsman. One of the fine longitudinal cross grains solid wood is known as Rosewood. It is available in the form of dense jungles in northern areas of Pakistan. In Asia this wood is only available in Pakistan. In local language people calls it SHESHAM. It is also available along the lakes and rivers in Punjab province of Pakistan. Such furniture is famous all over the world for its distinctiveness and beauty. (Shaukat, 2006) 5. Jewelry Leather goods Metalwork, including inlaid or engraved swords, boxes, dishes, and tea sets made from silver and gold, as well as jewelry with precious stones and pearls, are important crafts. Jewelry is not limited to necklaces, bracelets, rings but also includes hair and forehead decorations and nose ornaments. Leatherwork and basketry are also important crafts. Sindh baskets are colorful and intricate, while weavers in the Northwest Frontier prefer geometric patterns. (Shaukat, 2006) Embroidery Embroidery is the art or handicraft of decorating cloth or other materials with needle and thread or wool. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. Embroidery is an ancient textile art which uses strands of embroidery floss or wool to create a picture in thread on canvas, linen or other cloth. It forms a part of needlework. Embroidery uses various stitches and combinations of stitches. Each embroidery stitch has a special name to help identify it. Embroidery has recognized as a creative expression of people and it is storage of our oral traditions which have been maintained by the women. (Dhamija, 2004) Embroidered textiles are frequently used to decorate living spaces, temporary or permanent, impressive or modest. Colourful embroidered textiles, often displayed in combination with painted or stucco decoration, bring beauty and colour into mud-walled homes. Historically, embroidered textiles reflected the wealth and influence of rulers, courtiers, and favoured courtesans. Among South Asias many peoples, these textiles frequently identified family origins, personal status or religious affiliation. (Dale Carolyn Gluckman, 2007) The folk embroidery tradition runs deep in the Punjab. At the end of the 15th century, the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak, wrote: Thou art not a worthwhile woman until thou hast embroidered thy own blouse. Village women still practice the craft, also stitching bed and cushion covers and a variety of other cloths, but the art probably reached its peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (Beste, Michael, 2009) Types of embroidery There are many different styles of embroidery, often with regional variations. Chikan embroidery Chikan embroidery is a fine needle-craft done by hand mostly using white thread on a variety of fabrics from cotton and silk to synthetics. It is the most famous fine art of embroidery at Lucknow, and is famous not only in India, but also abroad. (Sarna Shukla, 1994) Zari embroideries From the second half of 18th century until the early 20th century, two different types of gold embroidery found ready patrons; these were: zardozi work, heavy silver-gilt thread work upon a foundation padded with cotton thread or paper, on velvet or sation ground; and Kalabattu work: light delicate embroidery, in gilt-silver or silver threads, strips of gilt-silver, gilt-silver sequins, upon fine silk cotton or muslin. (Dhamija, 2004) White work White work is embroidered in white thread, on pure white fabric, it is not at all difficult, and is cheap to achieve. The tools you will need for white work embroidery are minimal. Firstly, a nice piece of fabric. Depending on the kind of item you wish to produce, you may start out with high thread count white muslin, or an even weave or linen. Appliquà © work Appliquà © work is every kind of embroidery which, being worked solidly on one material is then cut out and lay down upon another, and secured by various ornamental stitches. (Dhamija, 2004) China work This work was almost entirely Chinese in design and techniques. It was done on saries, shawls, borders, children dresses and a variety of costumes. The fabric used was mainly chines silk or fine satin of red, purple and black colour. The embroidery was done sometimes with floss-silk and more often with tightly spun, two ply silk. (Dhamija, 2004) Phulkari The simple and sparsely embroided work for everyday use was called phulkari. It was done on odhnis or shawls for everyday use on coarse handspun khadi cloth, mostly brownish-red, usng floss-silk in darning stitched worked from the reverse side of fabric. (Dhamija, 2004) Kashmir embroidery The main varieties of Kashmir being namda, work on felt-wool, gabba, a type of appliquà © work, using waste woolen fabrics and kashida wrought on various kinds of clothing and the cloth used is either silk or wool. (Dhamija, 2004) Role of women in handicrafts Home based workers are the most marginalized and one of the largest groups of workers in this sector, with an estimated 300 million workers worldwide  [2]  . Home based work has been identified as work that is undertaken in the home by either independent own account workers or dependent subcontractors.  [3]  They are predominately women, located in various occupations including the assembly of electronic components of fans, washing machines, irons, or the manufacture of glass bangles, items of pottery; small scale packaging and assembling of consumables, hand knitting, embroidery, stitching, handicrafts, garments and weaving of carpets and shawls. It also includes clerical and teaching homework and the supply of raw materials. (Carr, Chen Tate, 2000) According to World Bank report after agriculture, the most important source of womens employment is home-based work.  [4]  (Aurat publication, 1997) The statistics on the informal economy are unreliable, The number of women in the informal labour force possibly stands at 12.79 millions, of whom 8.52 million women, constituting 75 per cent of the total informal sector workers, were home-based workers.  [5]  (Aurat publication, 1997) A survey of the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE) conducted in 2003 shows that 77 percent of the total female labor force falls within the purview of the informal sector, while 53 percent are classified as home based workers. The survey further revealed that in the rural sector, where 79 percent of the female population above the age of ten is actively involved in farming, only 37 percent are gainfully employed in their own family farms while the rest fall within the category of unpaid workers. Most working women have to hand over their earnings to their parents or husbands. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries women produced and consumed the crafts for the domestic interior. They made crafts at various levels in society and having different motives. At one level, it may have been artistic self-expression; at another level a product of a commitment to household duty or financial necessity, or on a third level it may have been for entertainment or pastime. (Edward, 2006) Informal Economy comprises of small enterprises of one or more persons, with casual or regular employees of less than 10 people.  [6]  The workers in this sector fall into the following three categories  [7]  : Self-employed women Home-based workers Self-employed women A woman who is self-employed works for herself instead of as an employee of another person or organization, drawing income from a trade or business. Self-employed workers are paid directly by clients or by their business, and some proportion of these payments will be due to the government as income tax. (Haq, 2003) Home-based workers Home based women workers fall into two categories: (i) dependent workers who work on a piece rate and usually produce for a subcontractor or middle persons in a contract chain; and (ii) independent home based workers or own-account workers who produce goods for direct sale through street stalls, shops or the local village and sometimes to traders or subcontractors. (Haq, 2003) In the last ten years women have become more energetic in business and the private sector. Their participation found in many areas, in which small scale projects as well as large scale private projects are included. Small scale rural projects deals with farming and gardening, production of handicrafts, running trade and food stores that transformed into large scale private projects. There are numerous networks which have been established for the women in business. It also empowers the women of a home-base producer or in private sector. (Brouwer, Harris Tanaka, 1998) The unplanned home-based workers represent an important part of working population. There are large number of income producing activities are included in home-based sector in which mostly women workers are engaged. Beedi making, textile, garment making, food processing, craft, coir work, dairy and chikan embroidery are included in these activities. Both in rural and urban areas, there is given very little importance to this unorganized sector and the signs of this sector are; the working conditions are unspeakable, the wages are extremely low and workers face great worries and exploitations. Home based industrial work is one of the least regulated, least managed, and most risky, systems of industrial production however a large number of women workers are tired in this sector just because of lack of personal resources, like education and awareness, non-availability of employment opportunities, and normative practices which control womens mobility outside home. (Sarna Shukla, 1994) Liberalisation has improved the employment opportunities for women in some sectors especially in the crafts sector. So there are increased the number of women in participation of home-base craft sector like in embroidery, lace making, weaving and printed textiles. In some cases empowerment of women also increases but in most cases, the working condition of the women workers is poor and they are paid less than men. (Krishnaraj, 1992 cited by Rao, 2005) Women have a great work load in their lives; they have a double burden, to earn income from their work and also have to fulfill their domestic responsibilities. They laboring the whole day; generally they work 12 to 16 hours per day and losing their time and energy both. (Durand, 1975 cited by United Nations Economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific, 1987) Being a embroidery skilled worker, their work requires women to sit long hours in the same position that resulting in eye, back bone, shoulders as well as other mental and emotional problems depending upon the physical environment in which these women live and work. (Sarna Shukla, 1994) Wage discrimination is obvious and usually common against women in Asia. Wage rates are as low as one-third or it may be observed that women always paid less of those paid to men. In Jobs also, there are described carefully to discriminate the labour practices involved; female positions typically require few skills and give poor salary. (United Nations Economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific, 1987) In handicrafts the embroidery work is a traditional art but many women faced some difficulty of marketing their skill. Generally simple embroidery piece do not have sale value except it is the part of some readymade garments, complete form and other gift items. Then these workers must rely on the other persons to sale out for their exclusive crafts. Generally these persons are shop keepers, designers and exporters. Women of home-base producers also face difficulty in this context because they are unadvertised and commonly people dont know them so they have only those customers to know them personally. (Gyanendra Dastidar, 2000) Mostly the womens work is disgustingly under-reported in Pakistan. Purdah is the main reason that stops any direct communication between the enumerator and the female respondent. The household head, usually a male, reports any female activity. Because purdah is a status representation, related with material well-being, and womens work is frowned upon, it is expected that female labour is under-reported. (Whyte, 1982 cited by United Nations Economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific, 1987) In some traditional industries like jute and cotton textile, mechanization has contributed in the rejection of female employment. Women represent 90 percent of the workers in these industries such as the making of embroidery. But intermediaries and middlemen who provide the raw materials and market the final product, make them badly exploited by only paying the women minimal wages. (Bhatty n.d.; Indian Council of Social Science Research, 1975 cited by United Nations Economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific, 1987) Crafts production is culturally recognized activity. The skills present in the economic sector and many women adopt and practice it. But they dont get to recognition and value not in the economy and not in the household level. They dont have any financial records, on average it accounts for less than 1% of a households income. This is not much to lead toward progress. There are too much women who participate in home-craft production but they just have little impact on it. There is also no visibility of proper place or infrastructure for marketing home-produced crafts. (Freedman Wai, 1988) NGOs should help the home based women workers to shape cooperatives. These cooperatives should supply raw materials, make sure appropriate and timely payments, arrange for the credit and support in design development. (Ministry of Labour, 2000). There is an immediate need to arrange female workers into cooperatives and other organizations where production and marketing are included. Government institutions or voluntary welfare organizations must come forward to reduce such exploitation of women. (United Nations Economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific, 1987)

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Politics and Government - Neoconservatism Movement and the Ashes of Fai

The Neoconservatism Movement - Out of the Ashes of Failed Liberalism Neoconservatism is a relatively recent term, no more than thirty or forty years old. In fact, many of its members never truly accepted the term at all. And while its name may be relatively easy to pinpoint, its roots refuse to be tied to any one person, event, or movement. Rather, neoconservatism stems from a number of social and political factors. One of the largest sociopolitical factors in the development of neoconservatism revolves around the 1960s liberal movement. Himmelstein states in his book, To the Right, that a number of "factors contributed to a general crisis of confidence in American institutions and created a political opening for . . . the Right, which presented itself in the late 1970s as a ‘revitalization movement’" (6). It seems that Himmelstein is describing a progression parallel to the liberal movement of the 1960s, on a smaller scale and with an alternative ideology hindered by fewer limitations. Accordingly, Francis states, in Beautiful Losers, that "the emergence in the 1970s of the political and intellectual movement known as "neoconservatism" is generally regarded as a response to the failures of conventional liberalism to deal effectively with the challenges of that decade [i.e. 1960s]" (95). So, are we to believe that neoconservatism stems exclusively from disenchanted 1960s liberals? I rving Kristol, a noted fore-founder of the movement, attaches an even more specific label, describing neoconservatism as "the erosion of liberal faith among a relatively small . . . group of scholars and intellectuals, and the movement of this group toward a more conservative point of view," without completely conforming to the traditional Repub... ...Cited Dorrien, Gary. The Neoconservative Mind: Politics, Culture, and the War of Ideology. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993. Ehrman, John. The Rise of Neoconservatism: Intellectuals and Foreign Affairs 1945- 1994. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. Francis, Samuel. Beautiful Losers: Essays on the Failure of American Conservatism. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1993. Himmelstein, Jerome L. To the Right: The Transformation of American Conservatism. Berkely: University of California Press, 1990. Kaiser, Charles. 1968 in America: Music, Politics, Chaos, Counterculture, and the Shaping of a Generation. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988. Kristol, Irving. Neoconservatism: The Autobiography of an Idea. New York: The Free Press, 1995. White, Theodore H. The Making of the President—1968. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1969.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Con law essay

Introduction The Lincoln High School seal designed by the School Seal Committee does not violate the Establishment Clause nor does it violate Leslie Fosters or anyone else's right to Freedom of Religion granted by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The First Amendment contains the Establishment Clause which states that the government shall make no law â€Å"Respecting an establishment of religion†. In other words the government shall not endorse religion and it shall not give preference to one religion over another but it does not prohibit the government's entry into religious domain to make accommodations.In this case the way to determine if the governments actions have endorsed religion it is required to apply the Lemon Test, created by the United States and obtained from Lemon v. Kurtzman. The Lemon Test is used to determine whether or not a display violates the First Amendment by endorsing religion. The first prong of the Lemon Test articulates that the government's actions must have a secular purpose. The second prong affirms that the government's action must not have the primary effect of either advancing or inhibiting religion.Last but not least, the third prong expresses that the governments action must not esult in an â€Å"excessive entanglement† alongside religion. To determine if the Lincoln High School seal is constitutional it must pass all three parts of the Lemon Test Theretore, since the Lincoln High Seal does pass all three parts ot the Lemon Test it is proven that the seal does not violate the establishment clause nor does it violate Leslie Fosters right to Freedom of Religion. Secular Purpose A.Stated Purpose The Lincoln High School seal passed the first prong of the Lemon Test because it has a secular purpose. Although the seal contains religious symbols they are considered secular because the urpose of them being there is to express the diversity among the students that attend Lincoln High to overall repre sent the school itself. For example, according to Lynch v. Donnelly the inclusion of a nativity scene in a city display did not infringe the Establishment Clause because the stated purpose was sincere and it was not a sham.The nativity scene was placed there to show the citys historical background. In Lincoln High School at the beginning of designing the seal the members of the school seal committee were instructed to design and create a seal that represented Lincoln High and its students. The students had many arguments and disputes on how to represent the students because each one of them had different ideas. They did discuss other ways to represent the students but they all agreed that the best way to display the diversity of the students was by the inclusion of the religious symbols.Since the Lincoln High Muslim Societys office had been vandalized by Christian and Jewish students they suggested to add religious symbols hoping to demonstrate the tolerance and respect they felt to ward the views of all the members of the Lincoln High community. The purpose, like in Lynch, was sincere and it was not a sham because they were actually aiming to represent the three most common religions in the school with the purpose to represent the students diversity not the religions the way that the government in Lynch was trying to represent the citys historical background through the nativity scene.Also, In Books v. Elkhart a monument inscribed with the Ten Commandments stood in front of the city of Elkhart's Municipal Building. Forty years after the monuments erection residents of Elkhart County, filed suit against the city alleging that he monument's presence violated the Establishment Clause. The court ruled the monument inscribed with the Ten Commandments to be secular because of its location, outside the Municipal Building, which houses the local courts and local prosecutor's office. This location emphasizes the foundational role of the Ten Commandments in secular, leg al matters.The court stated that a carving of Moses holding the Ten Commandments, surrounded by representations of other historical legal figures, signals respect not for great proselytizers but for great lawgivers. The court found the monument to be ecular because it was surrounded by other legal givers which minimized the religious purpose the monument of the Ten Commandments displayed to the community According to Books the court should look at the totality location of the circumstances to determine the actual purpose of the display.Like in Books, you can determine the actual purpose of the Lincoln High seal by looking at the totality of the circumstances. The religious symbols in the seal portray the role religions have amongst the students in the school in a secular way. Since the religious symbols in the seal are surrounded by other ecular symbols you can infer that the over all purpose is to represent the school not the religious symbols themselves. You can also determine tha t its meant to represent the school and its students because of its surroundings similar to how the Ten Commandments in Books represents a figure of a historical law giver not a proselytizer.The religious aspect in both cases have been proven to have a secular purpose because of their historical backgrounds and the circumstances in which they are present. B. Written Purpose It can also be determined that the Lincoln High School seal is secular by onsidering the leaflet that accompanied the seal. In the leaflet the members of the school committee wrote that the Lincoln High School seal is intended to represent the school, its population, Lincoln Center City and the state of Fordham.They wrote this to explain to the community that would see the seal during its inauguration what the symbols represented. In Adland v. Russ a monument inscribed with the Ten Commandments located on capitol grounds near Kentuckys floral clock lacked any secular purpose because it was unaccompanied by any ot her document. Therefore because of the Ten ommandments distinctly religious nature the pre- eminent purpose for the posting of the Ten Commandments is plainly religious. According to Adland v.Russ, an effective disclaimer can further strengthen the secular purpose of a public display. Unlike Adland the Lincoln High School Seal was accompanied with a leaflet that specifically stated the purpose of the symbols that were included in the seal which overall served to support the claim that the seal had a secular purpose. Effect 1 . Religious symbols The primary effect of the Lincoln high seal did not promote any religion over another because they used the three eligions that were abundant amongst the students.The members of the seal committee did acknowledge the fact that their were other religions practiced by the students who attended the schools and that their were other ways to represent diversity but they chose religion and specifically these three because their was a lot of tension going on between them. They contacted one of the members in the committee's father to ask about the religious symbols that corresponded witn the religions. The members dad happened to be a pastor which benefited them to achieve the information they needed to represent the diversity among he students, not necessarily the religion.The students hoped that by representing all the students as a whole through these religious symbols and the secular symbols the tension would diminish and the vandalizing of the Lincoln High Muslims Societys office would be behind them. The religious symbols that were included in the seal are that Latin Cross, Star of David, and a crescent moon and star. There are religious symbols in the seal but they only take up one third of the seal and they don't advance the religion they exhibit the diversity of the students through religion.The secular symbols integrated in the eal is the school name, school mascot, and a picture of the school. The outline of Fordham and the state flower and bird have been included to represent Lincoln Center City. The description of these symbols is also included in the leaflet accompanying the seal. Two- thirds of the seal is made up of secular symbols while only one third of the seal is made up of religious symbols. The inclusion of these secular symbols minimize the effect that the religious symbols have on the seal simply because their are more secular symbols than religious symbols.In Allegheny v. Aclu a cr ©che donated to the ity by a Roman Catholic group was placed on the staircase of the County Courthouse, the countys seat of government. With a banner it that said † Glory to in the highes t†. The Court reasoned cr ©che stood alone and contained an unmistakable religious message. Unlike Allegheny the religious symbols in the Lincoln High seal do not stand alone, they are surrounded by other secular symbols which gives off a secular message instead of a religious one.The secular symbols d elude the significance of the religious symbols because it shows that not only the religious symbols represent the school and its students. Therefore, all the symbols are of equal importance. Also in Allegheny another display outside another government building included a menorah and Christmas tree. On the other hand that court held that the menorah and Christmas tree had a secular purpose therefore they did not violate the Establishment Clause.The court noted that the display was not constitutional simply because it included two religions. Rather, it was constitutional because it celebrated the two holidays using what the Court viewed as secular symbols. This made the display, in the Court's view a recognition of the wo holidays, rather than an endorsement of them. Like in the Lincoln high seal the religious symbols are not secular simply because it includes the three religious symbols, but because it represented the schools students and their diversity like it was stated in the le aflet.The religious symbols in The Lincoln High seal, like in Allegheny are viewed as a recognition of the religions in the school rather than an endorsement ot them. According to Allgneny , cou rts nave never required that displays with religious symbols contain a symbol of every religion to be constitutional. In other words a display that contains a religious symbol doesn't not need to have a symbol on every religion in order to be constitutional and not violate the Establishment Clause. The Lincoln High School seal does not need to have a symbol of every religion in order to be consititutional.It is obvious that their are more religions practiced in the school other than the ones provided in the school but it also needs to be recognized that those three religions are the ones that are mostly practiced among the students. The religious symbols don't make the secular symbols religious but the secular ymbols do make the religious symbols secular because it emphasizes what the religi ous symbols are actually representing which is the students and their diversity in the school. In Friedman v.Bernalillo, The case challenges a county government's use of a seal bearing, among other things, a Latin cross and the Spanish motto, â€Å"CON ESTA VENCEMOS,†. While the cross is the primary symbol of Christianity, the Establishment Clause does not prohibit all references to objects of some religious significance. The district court found that a secular legislative urpose is served by the county seal because it is used to promote the appreciation of the heritage, history and cultural pride of Bernalillo County.In the Lincoln High School seal the religious symbols in are used to promote the diversity among the students and represent the school. All in all botn cases the displays nave been rul ed to nave a secular effect even though they contained distinctively religious symbols because like in Lincoln High the seals distinctive religious symbols don't endorse religion because of their purpose. 2. Secular Symbols The secular symbols in the Lincoln High School seal diminish the ffect that the religious symbols portray. In Kuhn v.City of Rolling Meadow she seal contained a church, which was considered a religious symbols. It surrounding secular symbols was a house, a family and trees. It also had city of Rolling Meadows and State of Illinois around the seal. The seal was considered constitutional because of the overall effect was not to endorse religion. The church was more than Just a religious symbol it was a historical symbol as well because of its historical background. Also the secular symbols surrounding it made it obvious so distinguish the fact that the hurch was included to emphasize the citys heritage and culture.The religious symbols in the seal weren't anymore prominent than the secular symbols which reveal that they are all of equal importance. Like in The Lincoln High School seal the three religious symbols also don't endorse religion because its surrounding symbols are secular which reduce the religious meaning that the religious symbols have and make all the seals of equal importance. Like in Kuhn the religious symbols in the Lincoln High seal are not more prominent than the secular symbols in the seal and they don't ave anything special to them that distinguish their importance from the other seal.With the inclusion of the secular symbols the religious symbols in the Lincoln High seal do not have an overall effect of endorsing religion. Rather, its overall effect is to represent the diversity in the school. In FFRF v. City of Wyoming the seal contains a house a golf course, a house, a building and a chapel. In this case it was also determined that the seal is constitutional because of its secular symbols. The golf course, building, and house all represent the City of Wyoming, Michigan.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Marijuana legalization Research outline Essay

Topic Sentence: Like alcohol in the 1920s, marijuana should be legalized because doing so would not only reduce crime, but make the substance more reliable and safer and would generate tax dollars. Background/History: Why is marijuana illegal? Why is it legal in some states and not in others? Marijuana became widely criminalized in 1937 when congress passed the â€Å"Marijuana Tax Act† 1 as a result of a national propaganda campaign against the substance. Harry J. Anslinger 1 led the campaign as the first commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics from 1930 to 1962. He used the themes of racism and violence to cause widespread hatred and fear of the drug in order to make it illegal. He was often quoted saying â€Å"Colored students at the Univ. of Minn. partying with (white) female students, smoking [marijuana] and getting their sympathy with stories of racial persecution. Result: pregnancy† and â€Å"Two Negros took a girl fourteen years old and kept her for two days under the influence of hemp. Upon recovery she was found to be suffering from syphilis.† 2 In 1996, Proposition 215 was passed in California and this allowed for the medical use of marijuana. Since then, 22 other states, D.C, and Guam have enacted similar laws. These laws have now decriminalized possession and/or legalized medical marijuana in the state. 1 How is it similar to the prohibition era before and after? It is similar to the prohibition era in that both the prohibition of alcohol and the prohibition of marijuana were country wide bans on the substance that carried some form of legal punishment for their sale, use, and/or possession. In contrast, the ban on alcohol was created as a result of legislators claiming that the grains needed to distill alcohol were needed for food as the country was at war. Then in December of 1917, the US congress enacted a permanent ban on the sale, transportation, importation, and exportation of alcoholic beverages. Similarly to supporters of marijuana prohibition, supporters of alcohol prohibition claimed that as a result, the  nation would become an overall healthier country and that crime rates would fall. In addition, the average worker’s productivity was supposed to increase, leading to greater economic prosperity for the US as a whole. However, none of these claims came true. Instead of promoting the nation’s health, the new alcohol made illegally was far worse for people and was often much higher in alcohol content. In addition, crime increased since illegal activity was required to make and distribute the newly illegal drug. Criminal activity then became organized as the benefit for large criminal enterprises to murder people and bribe public officials and law enforcement officers to move the bootleg brew became too tempting. Worker productivity failed to increase and jails quickly filled with people convicted of minor violations of the ban, which cost millions to enforce. In 1933, the prohibition of alcohol ended, causing a reduction in crime and creating many new jobs in the expanding liquor industry. 3 (Medical Uses/Benefits:) Although the Food and Drug administration have not supported the legalization for medical marijuana, doctors and researchers have found that the use of marijuana provides relief for many medical conditions and illnesses. According to the American cancer Society the use of smoked marijuana is not considered medicine (â€Å"The FDA’s Opposition to Medical Marijuana Legalization is based on science† 1). The reason the American Cancer Society believes that smoking marijuana cannot be used as a medicine because of the result of the damage to the lungs. (What are the medical benefits of marijuana?) OPPOSITION: National medical associations like the American Medical Association, American Cancer Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics do not endorse the use of smoked marijuana as a means of medicine. This is because there is not enough evidence to justify its medical use. Under the Controlled Substances Act, marijuana is listed as a schedule I substance. Substances that are placed in that category indicate that they have â€Å"a high potential for abuse, [have] no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and [have] a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision.† 8 Marijuana then, being classified as such, has no medical value. That makes it quite difficult for scientist to study any potential medical uses, since  medical trials require permission from federal agencies like the FDA. With numerous conditions on researchers, it deters the researchers from conducting such studies. Although these associations do not advocate the use of inhaled or smoked marijuana as medicine, they do incite for more research to be done. While recreational usage of marijuana remains controversial, many people agree that the drug should be legal for medical uses. There are at least two active chemicals that researchers believe have medicinal benefits. One is CBD, which has medical effects without a high and THC, which has pain-relieving properties. One of the most well known uses is in the treatment of the eye disease â€Å"glaucoma†, which increases pressure in the eyeball, damaging the optic nerve and causing loss of vision. According to the National Eye Institute, â€Å"Studies in the early 1970s showed that marijuana, when smoked, lowered intraocular pressure in people with normal pressure and those with glaucoma.† These effects are shown to slow the progression of the disease, preventing blindness. 4 5 Legal: What states have enacted bills regarding the legalization of marijuana? The first states to act were Colorado and Washington, both of which made the possession, cultivation, and use of marijuana legal in 2012 in addition to allowing sellers to obtain licenses to legally distribute the drug. Next came Alaska and Oregon in 2014 with similar laws that have already legalized the possession, cultivation, and use of marijuana but not necessarily the sale. In addition, 23 other states have either decriminalized cannabis possession and/or legalized medical cannabis. 6 Can marijuana be regulated like alcohol is? Does regulating marijuana make it safer? How much revenue and tax dollars has the legalization in certain states brought in. Based on current results in states that have legalized marijuana, the substance can be regulated like alcohol and regulation in fact makes it safer for consumption. Using Colorado as an example, not much has changed on the surface but the proof can be found in data reported about the state after a full year in which adults were allowed to purchase and grow marijuana legally in the state. According to state data, possession charges for the drug, which were at 30,000 in 2010, are expected to total below 2,500 for the year 2014. As for the regulation, the rules enforced by the Colorado Department of Revenue caused the state to bring in more than $40 million in  marijuana taxes alone, a majority of which will go towards efforts to prevent the use of the drug by youths and the promotion of overall mental health. Traffic fatalities are also near historic lows, and since the legalization have continued to drop. Colorado is also now seen as a state with one of the fastest growing economies as the unemployment rate is at its lowest since 2008, which is well below the national average.7 Conclusion: Efforts to legalize marijuana as medicine in the United States has grown significantly in recent years and will continue to grow. With modern technology becoming more and more state-of-the-art, the hope for medical marijuana to be nationally recognized, as a form of medical treatment remains strong. The legalization of marijuana will reduce crime activity, provide better treatment for certain diseases or illness, and could save the country up to 14 billion dollars per year in government spending enforcement. The billions of dollars being thrown away on marijuana prohibition is not going to make this huge market go away but will cause the bloodshed that inevitably comes with prohibition, just as it did during America’s hapless experiment with alcohol. Bibliography 1. â€Å"Marijuana Timeline.† PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. . 2. Inciardi, James A. â€Å"The War on Drugs: Heroin, Cocaine, Crime and Public Policy. Palo Alto,.† Inciardi, James A. The War on Drugs: Heroin, Cocaine, Crime and Public Policy. Palo Alto,. Mayfield, 1986. Web. 11 Apr. 2015. . 3. â€Å"The Prohibition Era.† The Prohibition Era. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2015. . 4. â€Å"What Is CBD?† Project CBD. N.p., 2015. Web. 12 Apr. 2015. . 5. Loria, Jennifer Welsh and Kevin. â€Å"23 Health Benefits Of Marijuana.† Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 20 Apr. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2015. . 6. â€Å"Legality of Cannabis by U.S. Jurisdiction.† Wikipedia. Wikimedia