Monday, September 30, 2019
Problem: When a team of individuals produce a single output the problem arises on how to contribute the reward so that every individual is equally rewarded. This article examines three different mechanisms to deal with this issue: 1.Markets Markets deals with the control problem through precise measurement and reward of individual contributions. 2.Bureaucrats Bureaucrats rely on a mixture of close evaluation with socialized acceptance of common objectives. 3.Clans Clans rely on a relatively complete socialization process which effectively eliminates goal incongruence between individuals. Introduction: Controls (by Tannenbaum)=sum of interpersonal influence relations in an organization Controls (Ezioni)= control is equivalent to power Controls (Weber)= a problem in creating and monitoring rules through a hierarchical authority system Main questions in article: 1) What are the mechanisms through which an organization can be managed so that it moves towards its objectives? 2) How can the design of these mechanisms be improved, what are the limits of each design? An example: The parts supply division Purchasing department: buys 100.000 items (p.a.) from 3.000 suppliers purchased by 22 employees on 3 management levels. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢Purchasing officer Ã¢â¬â send out request to 3 manufacturers and adds information on reliability,Ã¢â¬ ¦ and the order Ã¢â¬ ¢Supervisor Ã¢â¬â Consults agents if they need help and reminds workers that they are not allowed to accept presents Warehousing operations: 1.400 employees (incl. 150 manager) Ã¢â¬ ¢Pickers and packers (worker) Ã¢â¬ ¢Supervisor (manager) Ã¢â¬â Formal authority (written rules) Ã¢â¬â Informal authority (personality) Three mechanisms: 1.Market mechanism Ã¢â¬â> purchasing function Agents and supervisory employ market mechanism: to minimize cost for the company by picking the best price on the markets. In a market prices convey all of the information necessary for efficient decision-making. Frictionless market: Prices represent exactly the value of good or service. Therefore reward can be contributed in direct proportion to contribution of employee! Agents and supervisory are subject to bureaucratic mechanisms: Their work is controlled by a set of bureaucratic surveillance controls (performance evaluation, hierarchical oder-giving) 2.Bureaucratic mechanism Ã¢â¬â> warehousing function Warehousing is subject to routines of monitoring and directing. This is done by close personal surveillance and direction of subordinates by superiors, based on a set of rules. Rules vs. price: Rules are arbitrary (beliebige) standards without comparison, based on assigned values of (successful) actions. Prices imply that a comparison has already taken place. Prices are far more efficient means of controlling transactions than are rules. However, the conditions necessary for frictionless prices can rarely be met, and in such conditions the bureaucratic form, despite its inadequacies, is preferred. 3.Informal social / clan mechanism Supervisors can rely on bureaucratic mechanisms but this requires surveillance which is associated with costs. But when the supervisor knows that his workers achieve the Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ objectives, he can eliminate many of the costly forms of audition and surveillance. Social and informational prerequisites of control The three models can be arranged along two dimensions: 1.Informational requirements =prerequisite to successful operation 2.Social underpinnings = Set of agreements between people, as a bare minimum, is basis for control Type of controlSocial requirementsInformational requirements MarketsNorm of Reciprocity (Wechselwirkung) Prices BureaucracyNorm of Reciprocity Legitimate authorityRules ClanNorm of Reciprocity Legitimate authority Shared values, beliefsTraditions The informational prerequisite of control: While a Clan is the most demanding and the Market the least demanding with respect to social underpinnings, the opposite is true when it comes to information. Within large organizations departments tend to develop own jargon in which complex information is easily transported. Each system carries information on how to behave: Ã¢â¬ ¢Explicit system: accounting system Ã¢â¬â easily accessible by newcomer (system is created) Ã¢â¬ ¢Implicit system: is far less complete in its ability to convey information. e.g. US Senate Ã¢â¬â need years to understand flow of information (systems Ã¢â¬Å"grow upÃ¢â¬ ) Companies attempting to control the organization through a price (=market) mechanism use Ã¢â¬Å"transfer pricesÃ¢â¬ to represent prices of internal performances. The advantage should be obtained by using the best prices within the firm. Organizations can also create an explicit set of rules (behavior as well as production and output) that will cover every situation and therefore cut the information problem down by using rules that will cover 90% of all events and depending upon hierarchical authority to settle the remaining 10%. Again legitimate authority is critical to bureaucracy. In a Clan the information is contained in the rituals, stories and ceremonies. So to say the information system does not require a information system, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just there. For example Chinese-American Hui: conducts business as venture capital lender but they also enter risky businesses and even the repayments are left open. Entry is only granted by birthright, a practice that guarantees that every member is part in the same social network and therefore behave to the same rules and principles. While the Market and Clan are both specialized approaches it is the Bureaucratic which is the system that is most flexible. Of course, under certain circumstance both the Market and Clan approach will deliver better results but the Bureaucratic can withstand high rates of turnover, a high degree of heterogeneity and it does not have very demanding informational needs. Designing Control Mechanisms: Costs and Benefits Two ways of effective people control: 1. Find people that fit needs exactely 2. find people that donÃ¢â¬â¢t fit exactly but use a managerial system to instruct, monitor and evaluate them Best approach depends on costs. Ad 1. is associated with costs and search and acquisitions but their skills will help to reduce costs in the long-run. Ad 2. includes trainings costs and a the costs for the supervisory system but reduces high turnover. Search and select Ã¢â¬Ëclan-typeÃ¢â¬â¢ people: Cost of Search and Acquisition: High Wages Benefit: Perform tasks without instruction, work hard Instruct people into the Ã¢â¬ËclanÃ¢â¬â¢ system: Cost of training: instruct, monitor, and evaluate unskilled workers (who are likely to be indifferent to learn organization skills and values). High rates of turnover. Costs of monitoring: developing rules, supervising. Benefit: heterogeneous system of people that can be controlled. Explicit rules (codified knowledge) offset turnover costs. Loose coupling and The Clan as a Form of Control New view with impact on designing control mechanisms. The ability to measure either output or behavior which is relevant to the desired performance is critical to the Ã¢â¬Å"rationalÃ¢â¬ application of market or bureaucratic forms of control. Knowledge of transformation process: Tin Can plant: If we understand the technology (e.g. production process and what it takes for a successful production) perfectly, we can achieve effective control by setting rules that lead to behavior and processes that lead to our desired transformation steps. Thus, we can create an effective bureaucratic control mechanism. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s boutique: On the other hand, if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand what is needed (e.g. control system for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s boutique) to be a successful buyer or merchandiser, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t create rules. But we can measure output (turnover per buyer, salex volumes,Ã¢â¬ ¦). So we can use the output control mechanism to monitor various indicators and set actions accordingly. Apollo Program: Each step of the transformation (assembling) is crystal clear and we have a output measure (it comes back or not). Thus we have the choice and the lower cost alternative will be preferred: clearly as the cost of failure would be prohibitive (untragbar) and more elaborate behavior control system will be installed. Reseach Lab: We have the ability to define the rules of behavior and we can measure the output which will be some 10 years in the future. Certainly a strong output control system will be used but effectively this cannot guarantee success Ã¢â¬â so neither behavior nor output measurement will be sufficient, leaving us with no rational form of control. Therefore such organizations rely on ritualized, ceremonial forms of controls. This approach only works with the recruitment of a selected few individuals, with the same schooling and professionalization process. Another organizations using this form: Hospitals, Investement banks, Ã¢â¬ ¦ Whereas output and behavior control can be implemented through a market or bureaucracy, ceremonial forms of control can be implemented through a clan. Closing observations Depending on the organization and its requirements it has to be choosen which control systems works best. E.g.: manufacturing: behavior and output control vs. service org.: cultural or clan controls. Nevertheless every control system is directed at achieving cooperation by: Ã¢â¬ ¢Market mechanism: each personÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution is evaluated; combined with a personal loss of reward Ã¢â¬ ¢Clan mechanism: attain cooperation by selecting and sozialising individuals such that their objectives overlap with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives Ã¢â¬ ¢Bureaucratic mechanism: does a little of each, partly evaluates performance and partly engenders feelings of commitment to the idea of legitimate authority in hierarchies Two main questions: 1. Clarity with which the performance can be assessed 2. Degree of goal incongruence (either trust each other or control each other)
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Hannah Goracke Dr. Young English Composition 101 26 September 2012 Failure Failure is an ambiguous term. Each person can define what it means to Ã¢â¬Å"failÃ¢â¬ in a different way. Just as someone has their own standards of leading a successful life, they also have their own standards in terms of maybe leading a not so successful life. Within the word Ã¢â¬Å"failureÃ¢â¬ therein lays a few different meanings that may differ from person to person depending on his or her own opinion. Each person may have had a different experience with failure, which led him or her to believe what he or she does.Today, failure can be attached to three different ideas. First, failure can be defined as the opposite of success. Lost the race? You failed it. Got a 54 percent on your last math test? ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s failure. Whether this failure comes about as a result of laziness or just bad luck, this is the type of failure that we have been taught since we knew how to spell the word. It is the most com mon use of the word; if you were to ask a random stranger what Ã¢â¬Å"failureÃ¢â¬ meant to them, they would most likely correlate it with the word Ã¢â¬Å"successÃ¢â¬ .Failure is not success, it is failing to succeed. Still, there is another meaning of the word that takes on a more philosophical view. Failure, some may argue, is the actually the word used to describe the result of not trying. This definition has to do with the outcome the effort opposed to trying but not reaching a specific goal. Failing to do anything at all is failing to try. You want to run the race, but you donÃ¢â¬â¢t? Failure. Got a 54 percent on your math test? Technically failing, but did you try?If any sort of trying was involved, failure did not occur. Even by getting an F on the math test, there was still an A for effort. The third meaning may require a bit more explanation. The word Ã¢â¬Å"failÃ¢â¬ has become quite commonplace in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society among young tween-age kids to teenagers. It has become a slang term, usually used in humorous situations. It is often used to kid or make fun of another or themselves when a small and funny mistake has been committed. It is almost always used in a joking manner.You overslept your alarm and missed your first class? Fail. That person left their blinker on for two miles after they turned? Fail. The word Ã¢â¬Å"failÃ¢â¬ has become part of the young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s generation. It is a term that is used very commonly among the teenagers of today. Failure can have multiple meanings. How itÃ¢â¬â¢s interpreted all depend on the person and the context of their situation. Someone who tried to complete a task but instead experienced failure might be bitter or optimistic depending on his or her outlook.Someone who is more pessimistic might repeat that failure is the opposite of success. Someone who has a more optimistic mindset would be able to look at the bigger picture understand that by failing to try, they decrease their chances of success exponentially. Failure has taken on another meaning as a popular slang term used by young people to describe a funny mistake. The term failure holds much ambiguity that depends on the perspective and experiences of the person putting it in use.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The American dream exists because everybody has a dream of what they want, or what they want to achieve. Americans achieve success through achieving their goals. The American dream is what gives people hope; it allows them to work hard to achieve happiness, and all the things that come with it. Like gaining all the things you want and need in life (Warshauer). The American dream is a big part of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. The American dream is based on the freedom of the people to pursue their goals through hard work and free chance (Malone). Maybe the American dream doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist maybe there was no American dream to start with. The American dream is dead for the majority of AmericaÃ¢â¬ sayÃ¢â¬â¢s financial guru Suze Orman, she believes that the dream of one day owning your own home and working one job till you retire, well and being able to retire will one day be crushed. Orman says we are on a road leading to poverty and there are no roads coming off of it. This is the e nd of the American dream some say Ã¢â¬Å"it has been soldÃ¢â¬ says (DCraig), but itÃ¢â¬â¢s the start of a new American Dream. The new American dream deals with responsibility, quality, ethics, and creativity while money takes its new place as a means. But the American dream changes and changes in the 20th century, the American Dream was summarized as Ã¢â¬Å"a single family house in the suburbs with a white picket fence around it,Ã¢â¬ (Leinberger). So the American dream changes with time, as the world changes so does the American dream. The us bureau of labor stats that out of 100 people that started working when they were 25, by the age of 65, 1 percent are wealthy, 4 percent have retired, 3 percent are still working, 63 percent are dependent on social security and charity,29 percent are dead. This represents real people who will most likely never make it to the top. This says that only 5% of the people you see will be finically successful. The worst thing about the American dream is that people would rather be rich and miserable than poor and happy. Ã¢â¬Å"I once said that at a party, and a woman about my age said, Ã¢â¬Å"Well sure I would. If I was rich, I could make myself happy. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Nope,Ã¢â¬ I replied. Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s not the deal: You can either be rich and miserable, or poor and happy. Period. So which is it? Ã¢â¬ She thought about it for several seconds. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d rather be rich. Ã¢â¬Å" Said Francis Hare ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the problem with the American Dream. It used to be that a person with good work ethic could become anything they wanted and be happy with it. Now itÃ¢â¬â¢s about all the money you can make how much you have and you social class. (Hare) Another way to achieve the American dream is through education; education is the key to success, if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the proper education itÃ¢â¬â¢s not likely for a person to succeed in life (Stone). If there is an American dream which means, people pursuing their dreams, then why is the unemployment rate so high? The answer to that question is that the American dream has changed in some peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. The opinion I share is that the American dream has always existed in Americans dreams hence the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ . I think it is what people dream of having which varies from person to person, no one person has the same dream. It also changes from time to time; as new things come out people want them. Most of all people are losing sight of the American dream all they want is money and an easy was to get it, most people are trying to achieve their American dream the easy way through lawsuits or the lottery (Warshauer). So I do think the American dream varies depending on the person. I can see why people think the American dream doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. Since there is really no definition for the American Dream or you canÃ¢â¬â¢t really put your finger on what it actually is. Lorie A. Johnson says the American dream is getting farther and farther out of reach. Today, people cannot afford to buy a home; people are spending their money on other things to find happiness. But Lorie A. Johnson says that Ã¢â¬Å"in order to be truly happy, Americans need to reject the false American dream and create their own vision of happinessÃ¢â¬ . Johnson) But the real question is does the American dream still exist? The answer to this question is there is no answer, because it only exists in the people that believe in it and itÃ¢â¬â¢s also different from person to person. The American dream only exists in the people that believe in the American dream. For the people that still believe in the American dream, it gives hope of success in their life. For the people that donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in the American dream, they are now slaves to their jobs donÃ¢â¬â¢t have goals to achieve. Which makes it harder and harder to believe there is an American Dream? (Malone). The American dream can be said to be many things but one this for sure is that it is not gone. It just changes with the time, if America is still around so will the American dream no matter how bad the economy gets. The American dream is definitely still alive and kicking people just need to know that, the American dream is whatever their dream is or whatever they want to accomplish.
Friday, September 27, 2019
''THE 'DIVORCE' OF OWNERSHIP FROM CONTROL FROM 1900 RECALIBRATING IMAGINED GLOBAL TRENDS'' - Essay Example In this paper we first summarize the Leslie Hannah's article titled "the 'divorce' of ownership from control from 1900: re-calibrating imagined global trends" and then discuss 'why this topic considered to be significant' comprehensively. In this paper entitled "The 'divorce' of ownership from control from 1900: re-calibrating imagined global trends", Leslie Hannah describes the US businesses - and, in some respects, Europeans as well - were subjugated by plutocratic family ownerships, and these States had very small metropolitan stock exchanges, compared to the size of their economic systems. Britain and France illustrated the highest levels of 'divorce of ownership' from power, and (with Belgium and the Netherlands) had the well-built equality culture. However South Africa, Egypt, India and Austria had partially more access to metropolitan equity assets as similar to Italy and Japan. It seems that Australia and Canada were not underprivileged, when it comes to their market growth, with respect to the United States of America. None of this packed, simply in any case, for their upcoming economic expansion: divorcing the ownership from power caused as many troubles as it determined to; ownerships had several other cha nnels out of which to flow; and the assets that practice stock exchanges were not essentially the most fruitful one. He further suggests that this observation is relied on too narrow a conception of the forms which ownership takes and on too straightforward a hypothesis of the connection between ownership and business performance. And further investigates why the point of views instinctive to generations hold so much opposing visions from those of recent ones, by investigating why and where the family ownership was divorced from 'influence' on the verge of the twentieth century. It will be definitely confirmed that France and Britain escorted in the 'disintegration' of ownership from power, most particularly in the sectors of railway and financial systems. Yet in the industrialized zone, American and German industries in nineteenth century or onwards were not evidently less family-owned by board members (in most cases, then, founding industrialists or inheriting family units) than in France; family ownership was in all probability rather common in Britain. The Importance of this topic During the early stages of industrialization in nineteenth century, personal or family ownership have usually been seen as a resourceful and flourishing capitalist response to marketplace breakdowns (Colli 2001, pg. 160). Yet in the twentieth century, small-sized personal businesses remained statistically large in some of the European countries. Moreover, the continued influence of sweeping family and personal ownerships, in spite of an understood crossroads of current economies towards 'commercially free enterprises', implies that personal free enterprises continue to be a significant issue at the dawn of the twenty first century. Economists were generally more troubled with marketplace structures and the significance of 'struggling' in competent supplying share than with worrying about who owned what (Colli 2001, pg. 166). However, with increasing interest in open marketplace economics, particularly in the last few years, 'family ownership' has grown to be a subject in its own right. The present government systems clearly consider that varying ownerships from public
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Self -Care During Pregnancy - Research Paper Example Weight gain depends a lot on diet, physical activity and a way of life of a woman. There are certain recommendations for gain weight for women, however they differ for those with normal weight, who are underweight and overweight or obese. The weight gain also depends on how many children a woman is carrying (one, twins, triplets etc.). These recommendations are ("Pregnancy Weight Gain", New Zealand Ministry of Health, "Fit for Two: Tips for Pregnancy"): The numbers may differ depending on the recommendations of doctors in specific cases. But on the whole, a woman should try to keep to those limits, as lack of weight and weight excess may lead to undesirable outcomes, such as ("Pregnancy Weight Gain", New Zealand Ministry of Health, "Fit for Two: Tips for Pregnancy"): Thus it is necessary for a woman to try to keep to these limits, though it may be a challenge to many of them, especially that together with a growing baby, a woman has growing appetite. So it is important to her to monitor weight change and discuss it with her doctor. Healthy diet, which includes necessary nutrients and calories, and moderate physical activity may contribute to proper weight gain (New Zealand Ministry of Health). However constant and exhausting exercises should not become the ultimate goal of a pregnant woman, who does not want to gain more weight than recommended. A caloric intake of a pregnant woman does not differ significantly from a non-pregnant, and is between 2000-2500 calories (BabyCenter Medical Advisory Board, Hark and Catalano, "Fit for Two: Tips for Pregnancy"). There are some basic principles or rules, which a woman needs to observe while being pregnant. One of them is that pregnancy does not mean that a woman has to eat for two persons, because a baby does not require the same caloric intake as a grown-up person. A woman has to take extra 300-500 calories (Hark and Catalano). During the first trimester a woman may have the same calories
About the Earthquakes Information, time scale, plate tectonic, slope stability, all kinds of it, statistics, num - Research Paper Example The paper uses a practical approach to examine earthquakes by evaluating five specific cases cases. These cases include major events in: 1. The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake 2. The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake 3. The 1964 Alaska Earthquake 4. The 1960 Chilean Earthquake and 5. The 2004 Sumatra Earthquake The paper renders a very extensive research into these earthquakes and the effects they had on the lives and properties of the societies at the given points they occurred. It examines the elements of physical geography in the areas and the exact impact of the quakes on these areas. In arriving at this end, the following objectives are met: 1. An examination of the social factors that existed in these three regions prior to the earthquakes 2. The geographical analysis of the components of the earthquakes. 3. An evaluation of the effects of the earthquakes on human lives and property. II Scientific Background of Earthquakes Ã¢â¬Å"An earthquake is a series of vibrations or seismic (shock) wa ves which originates from the focus Ã¢â¬â the point at which the plates release their tension or compression suddenlyÃ¢â¬ (Nagle & Guiness 263). Earthquakes involve the phenomenon where the earth surface shakes at certain points in time. It involves some kind of vibration that is emitted from deep within the earth's crust. Earthquakes result from some shocks that are remitted from within the earth's surface which is felt on the land and in the sea. Earthquakes often cause the damage of building and destruction of properties. The epicenter of an earthquake is the part of the surface of the earth which is the focus of the earthquake. Usually, the epicenter is the point on the earth where the highest impact of the earthquake occurs. Aside the epicenter, the earthquake is felt in other lands around the epicenter. However, relative to the epicenter, the other areas affected by the earthquake is much lesser than that of the epicenter. Earthquakes are emitted by a series of shocks. T here are some large shocks whilst there are other smaller shocks. These shocks shake the earth surface and are known as tremors. The tremors that occur before the earthquake are known as foreshocks whilst those that occur after the major earthquake are known as aftershocks (Nagle & Guiness 265). In terms of occurrence, there dynamics of earthquakes vary with the layer within which an earthquake emanates. Primary waves are body shocks in the earth's interior. The occur deep within the earth and close to the earth's core. Secondary shocks occur nearer to the surface of the earth. They are known as surface waves. Their impacts are quite less than primary waves. The primary waves affect a wider surface area and have a higher intensity on the epicenter. Earthquakes are measured by two popular methods (Nagle & Guiness 266). One of them is the Richter Scale whilst the other is the Mercalli Scale. The Richter scale records the magnitude of earthquakes on a scale of 1 to 10. The measurement is based on logarithms and it increases exponentially on the scale of tens. Thus an earthquake judged to be 7 on the scale is ten times more than one that is 6 on the scale. That same earthquake (7) will be judged to be hundred times more than another that is 5 on the scale and so on. The Mercalli Scale however measures the earthquake in terms of its impact on the society. It is a more practical approach to measure how the earthquake was felt by the community that was affected by it. The Mercalli
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
See attachment - Movie Review Example We are led slowly into the past. For an American audience, this is especially useful, as SophieÃ¢â¬â¢s story is a trans-Atlantic one that takes place in both Europe and America. This deeply personal focus is another way in which this film differs from other miniseries. Part of the success of this focus comes from Meryl StreepÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. The film is virtually unimaginable without her presence. She manages to bring to life the central heroine. This deeply personal story of a woman and her choice sets this film apart from other miniseries. One of the most striking aspects of the cinematography focusing on the Holocaust is that it is in black and white. The colour is sapped from this world. Sophie, whose lips are usually red, has virtually no colour in her face in these scenes. She is living in a nightmare of death and despair, from which there is no real exit. The filmmakers are very careful to create this sense of claustrophobia, and it is very effective. Rather than show huge acts of violence, the filmmakers are content to let much of this happen off screen. The filmmakers also film a lot of scenes indoors, with Stingo, Nathan, and Sophie all very close together. This indicates how trapped each of them is in the worlds they have created for themselves. It is a curious and effective trick. Each of the choices that the characters makeÃ¢â¬âwhen to act and how to actÃ¢â¬âhave limited their lives in some way. The filmmakers communicate this by filming scenes indoors and in small rooms. There is also a theatrical element to the actingÃ¢â¬âespecially Kevin KlineÃ¢â¬â¢s performance as Nathan. It is almost as if he is always on stage. This is an interesting choice in direction as it suggests that Nathan is a man who has dramatized himself. Perhaps he only wants to be with Sophie because of the sense of drama that she offers to him. Like
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Economics Government Regulation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words
Economics Government Regulation - Research Paper Example Poor planning leads to loss of resources and in extreme levels to the collapse of the enterprise. Therefore, it is very crucial for organizations to make clear plans that would act as the blue print for the business (Baker & English, 2011; Singh, 2012). The price that a food processing company should charge for its commodities should range between the lowest price at which the company may not make profit at all, to the highest price that is likely to reduce demand of the products if charged. In such a case, a company should consider both the internal and the external factors in order to get the most appropriate price between these two extremes. Introduction of new products calls for adoption of a proper pricing strategy that would completely discourage competition from the new comers (other firms) and most importantly create the desired impact in the market (Kurtz, 2012). Penetration and skimming pricing strategies are some of the basic strategies that may be adopted to determine the right price of the commodity. Skimming pricing encompasses launching a product at a relatively high price and later on reducing it if necessary (Kurtz, 2012). This strategy spends a lot of money in product promotion, and is recommended mostly when the demand of the product is not predictable. The strategy is common especially if the company had spent large sums of money on research, when promotion is likely to expend a lot of money due to the competition, and when the commodity is very innovative in a way that the market is likely to mature gradually. Skimming strategy has numerous advantages such as ensuring that the elasticity of the products price is low as well as ensuring that minimal cross elasticity of demand exists in case there exist products that are close substitutes. This helps the product in making a vital inroad into the market
Monday, September 23, 2019
Annotated Bibliography Example I concur with the author`s conclusion that AIDS screening and training programs that are gender-specific lowers HIV transmission in prisons. This research used questionnaires to figure out gender differences in the level of knowledge about HIV symptoms, transmission and prevention measures among inmates in the United States. Both sexes showed an understanding of what HIV is and the common routes of transmission. However, some presenting symptoms associated with HIV, like the frequent vaginal yeast infection and vaginal discharge, are only in women and not in men. In addition, prevention measures in women were slightly different from the ones for men. Due to these differences, the author concluded that preventive education oriented programs used in male inmates prisons may not be entirely beneficial to female inmates. Global Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS. (2009). Advancing the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of people living with HIV: a guidance package. Amsterdam: The Global Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS (GNP+). This paper intends to educate women inmates living with HIV on how and why to fulfill their sexual needs and have a reproductive health. The well-being of HIV-positive women is taken into consideration as one way of respecting the human rights. Methods meant to make them live longer, be healthier, be more productive and live more satisfying lives are explored. Inmates are encouraged to get involved in physical exercise, avoid intravenous drug use and avoid risky sexual behaviors. Peer education and respecting human rights (no rape) can prevent the spread of new infections. The author concludes that preventing transmission of diseases protects not only the inmates but also the society at large. This work is one of the articles from United Nations & AIDS (UNAIDS) - an international body that focuses on HIV/AIDS. The author explains what makes women more vulnerable to
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Solar Energy Essay |The increasing cost of energy and the reality of almost-depleted oil resources have driven man to discover alternative sources. And now, the human race has turned to the basic elements of nature by harnessing energy from wind, water, and the sun. Solar energy is a renewable form of energy and has been a major focus as an alternative source.Ã It offers promising potentials as a clean renewable form of energy but it also has its limitations. Sun, as our closest star, is practically an indirect and direct source of available energy here on Earth. Ã But it was only until recently that the potentials of solar energy appealed to society as it has been greatly improved through research and study. The sunÃ¢â¬â¢s energy originates from the nuclear reactions at its core where temperature reaches 15 millions Ã °C.Ã It reaches the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface in form of light and heat and can be gained at 1Kw/ m2 under optimal conditions.Ã In order to use solar radiation there has to be a way to capture the energy.Ã Solar panels are invented to collect the sunÃ¢â¬â¢s energy and can de converted directly or indirectly Ã ¦to other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. Ã Applications of solar energy can be for heating/cooling, electricity production, and chemical processes such as in solar detoxification technologies for cleaning water and air. There are many advantages of solar energy over other conventional forms.Ã Ã As a renewable form of energy, the primary benefit of this is that it will never run out.Ã The sun provides unlimited supply of solar energy, and is virtually free after the user recovers the initial cost of installation.Ã The use of solar panels in homes does not need fuels and produces no waste or pollution.Ã The Clean Energy Ideas website further presented on the advantages of solar power that the only pollution that could be associated with this is may be during the production of the cell and transportation to ones home.Ã But by the time that it is installed, this solar power system has the total lack of pollution given off. Solar energy also has the ability to harness power in remote locations.Ã It has an advantage to bring electricity in the remote places on earth as long as the sun contains enough energy in that location. Mountain communities, for example, could benefit a lot from the electricity powered by solar energy as constructing conventional power lines in these places will be very difficult or near impossible due to expensive cost it would incur. Solar energy power system can be stand alone structures that do not require connection to power or natural gas grid. A major limitation of solar energy is its ability to collect and store energy so there is a constant power supply.Ã Since it cannot function at night when the sunÃ¢â¬â¢s power is not available or in places where the sun is not able to provide enough energy for the amount of energy needed for use, there are times that back up energy source is needed.Ã The irregular and variable manner that solar energy arrives on earth limits the use of this form of energy.Ã Large areas are also needed to collect it at a useful rate. In the United Kingdom, for example, where the country experiences not a very sunny climate, solar power is use only for low power application. Ã Jesse Ausebel of the of the Rockefeller University in New York in his article for the Indersciences International Journal of Nuclear Governance, Economy and Ecology, claims that renewable energy is not always green (Inderscience, 2007). He criticized solar power since a Ã¢â¬Å"photovoltaic solar cell plant would require painting black about than 150 square kilometers plus land for storage and retrieval to equal a 1000 MWe nuclear plantÃ¢â¬ . Since this form ofÃ renewable energy involves vast infrastructure, such as concrete, steel, and access roads, Ausebel further added that As a Green, one of my credos is no new structures but renewables all involve ten times or more stuff per kilowatt as natural gas or nuclear, (Inderscience, 2007). The initial cost of installation of solar panels or building solar power stations can be very expensive, discouraging some of the could-be users of solar energy.Ã It has appealed mostly to the affluent members of society and environment advocates because buying and installing solar power equipment can cost $15,000 for an average-size home before any current starts to flow a John Greenwald wrote in his article for Time magazine (Greenwald, 1993). Advance studies and research, however, are trying to lower the cost of installation so that this could be accessible to more people.Ã The technology in harnessing the potentials of solar energy is getting better and cheaper with the passing years.Ã The price of photovoltaic cells that convert sunlight to electricity has fallen from $500 a watt in the 1960s to about $4 in the 1990s and companies are still finding ways to reduce the cost for residential use (Greenwald, 1993). As the technology is getting better, support from the federal government are also coming in.Ã Jimmy Carter earlier created tax breaks to spur solar development but this was later scrapped by Ronald Reagan who viewed this as meddling in the energy business, which impeded the development of renewable energy for about 10 years (Greenwald, 1993). With the current situation of our environment, however, the government and the society in general recognizes the need and benefit from developing and improving solar energy. The use of solar energy for electricity is not a farfetched idea as the technology has gone through vast improvements.Ã Researchers believe that solar energy is soon going to play a major role in electricity generation for the masses.Ã Production of this on a larger scale are being studied and improved. Budget allocations for these research and studies are being increased in countries around the world signifying that people are finally recognizing the advantages of this renewable form of energy. Energy is needed to spur human activities.Ã Solar energy indeed poses promising potentials in a society where conventional sources of energy are near depletion.Ã Undeniably, the solar energy has its limitations, but these are slowly and surely overcome with technological advances and it will not be for long when this energy form will be produced in a larger scale and cheaper rate accessible for homes around the globe. WORKS CITED: Ã Clean Energy Ideas. http://www.clean-energy-ideas.com/solar_panels.html Greenwald, John. Here Comes the Sun. 18 October 1993. Time magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,979413-3,00.html A Brief Introduction to Solar Energy. My Solar Power at Home. http://www.mysolarenergyathome.com/ Natural Resources Canada. Renewable Energy. http://canren.gc.ca/tech_appl/index.asp?CaId=5PgId=121 Renewable Energy Wrecks Environment, According To Researcher. Inderscience Publishers. 25 July 2007 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/07/070724160209.htm
Saturday, September 21, 2019
BMW Human Resources Policy Organisations, Analysis and Policy REPORT To: Senior Management From: Group Accountant Date: 2nd May 2005 Subject: BMW Organisational Analysis andHuman Resources Policies This report will provide a detailed analysis of BMWscurrent corporate appraisal analysis. This will help to identify the companyscurrent strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This will help thecompanies decision makers understand where the organisation is now. The reportwill also critically evaluate BMWs human resources policy as a key area of theorganisation. We will highlight how BMW has strategically responded to thedrivers for change in terms of its structure, conduct and performance. Finally,offer recommendations for the future development and improvements in humanresource management, and how those will impact on its organisational structure,conduct and performance. Company Background The BMW Group is the only manufacturer of automobiles andmotorcycles worldwide that concentrates entirely on premium standards andoutstanding quality for all its brands and across all relevant segments. With the brands BMW, MINI andRolls-Royce Motor Cars, the BMW Group has been focussing on selected premiumsegments in the international automobile market since the year 2000. In thesucceeding years, the launch of the BMW 1 Series meant an expansion of themodel range in the premium segment of the lower middle class and the BMW 6Series did likewise in the segment of the large CoupÃÆ'Ã ©s and Convertibles. TheMINI marque was launched and production began in the Oxford plant in 2001. In2003, the BMW Group assumed marque responsibility for Rolls-Royce Motor Cars.At the same time, the Worldwide Head Office and Manufacturing Plant inGoodwood, GB, was built. ( AnInternal and corporate analysis in terms of strength, weaknesses, opportunitiesand threats (SWOT) will assist in gaining an understanding of where BMW iscurrently in terms of strengths and where improvement is required within thebusiness and what outside environmental threats it may face as well as what newopportunities are available to the company in the short and medium term. Figure 1:BMW SWOT Analysis STRENGTHS Diverse ranges of Products BMW, MINI and Rolls-Royce Strong Cash Flow Position Increase turnover and trading profits Strong Balance Sheet Worlds leading Premium Quality Automobile Manufacturer Brand Awareness Human resources Capabilities to turn resources into advantages OPPORTUNITIES New Products Market shift to globalisation Innovation Alliances Customers demand change to more comfortable and relevantly cheap cars Diversification New Technologies in Automobiles WEAKNESSES Perception of High Prices Customer disinterest Environmental issues: Pollutions Buyer sophistication and knowledge Substitute products or technologies THREATS New existing competition Volatility in Price of Fuel New legislations Consequences of the oil crisis September 11th Economic recession Market shift to globalisation Takeover bids Far-East Automobile companies expansion Extremely high competition for customers and resources The Five Forces Model Figure2: Five Forces Model ACCA Paper 3.5 (2001) Threats from Potential entrants Suppliers Bargaining power Competitive Rivalry Buyers Bargaining power Threats from Substitutes Porterexplains that there are five forces inherent in a market, which will jointlydetermine the intensity of competition and profitability of BMW and theautomobile industry. The first is the threat posed by new entrants, the highcapital expenditure and confidence of customers represent significant barriersto entry and the market is also sensitive to reputation. However, the emergentof low cost manufactures do pose a significant threat (as illustrated by figure2). There is an opportunity in the low price/ low economy (fast) sector. MaybeHyundai or Daewoo could consider introducing a low cost sport saloon. The second is the threats from substitutes, as thereare many make and model of other premium branded cars, hence, Jaguar, MercedesBenz, Audi etc. The third force is the threats from the bargaining power ofbuyers, is this strong for both BMW and the entire automobile industry with alarge number of alternative suppliers, hence, the aggressive pricing strategy.This results in a very str ong competitive rivalry in the industry. This isintensified as a result of little or no differentiation in the basic productoffered. Finally the threats from the suppliers bargaining power, this isfairly low in the automobile industry, due to dual sourcing strategies, using arange of alternative sources of supply for parts. The five forces analysis gives an improved understandingof the degree of competition within the business environment. The analysisshows that the automotive industry is highly competitive, with buyerspossessing and exerting a very powerful influence to the large number ofsubstitute brands available to them. BMW Human Resources Policy In response to a changing business environment BMW isbeing more business and service focus. In the past decade the organisation hasbecome much more proactive, dealing with new concepts to become more serviceand customer focus oriented. The structure of the organisation has beenredefined to deal with the new ways of operating. Organisational structuredefines important relationship within the business for achieving businessobjectives. At the same time it helps to define the new business culture withinBMW. Culture exists with the minds and hearts of BMWs employees andcontributes to business strategies of the organisation. Therefore, BMWs humanresources policies are critical in the organisations structure, conduct andperformance. Competitive pressures on BMW and national economies haveincreased markedly in recent decades. Therefore, organisations are constantlychanging, as powerful entities have arisen at the international level, theEuropean Union being a good example and multinational corporations increasinglydominate particular sectors such as cars. New competitions are emerging andforcing older companies to adopt or reform to survive. Different structuresaffect the way in which human resources are managed. BMW like all otherbusinesses require the same basic human resources activities like recruitment,development and training, appraisal and reward systems, and control andfeedback mechanisms. Organisational structures are influenced by culture.Employees have strong feelings towards the organisations they work for. Germanfirms have inherently a flat, less rigid structures. The McKinsey 7 S modelis often used to identify all the areas that make up an organisation.Structure, Style, Staff are three such areas. BMW has an equal opportunities none sexual discriminatingculture within its organisation. BMW actively supports young female executivesand gives females insight into the field of technology. BMW also offersextensive training for all level of staffs; BMW Groups Trainee PromotionProgramme (TPP) provides the perfect combination of theoretical studies andpractical work. BMW Group trainees receive many benefits in addition to theirpay, other social payments such as holiday and Christmas bonuses, meal andtravelling expenses subsidies, health programme and PC training. BMW claims that it does not see its staff as a cost factorbut as an essential performance factor. Also the employees are referred to asassociates rather that works. BMW in its human resources policy states thatany policy that is not oriented towards its associates will lead to negativecost effects in the long-run. As a future-oriented company, we seek to pursue anexemplary, creative and associate-oriented human resources policy, makingsignificant contributions to business success through our human resourcesactivities. The human resources policy of the BMW Group is an integral featureof our overall corporate policy in both strategic and operative decisions. (Corporate appraisal (or SWOT analysis) consists of the internal appraisal ofthe organisations strength and weaknesses and an external appraisal of theopportunities and threats open to organisations in competition within industry.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Friendships Friends. How many of us have them? Friends. Ones that we can depend on. This question about friendships was asked in the 1984 song Friends by Whodini. Humans have the need for social interaction and one of the ways that human beings fill this need is by forming friendships. From an early age, we form bonds with our peers. Initially these bonds start as surface friendships in childhood and as people grow older, the friendships they have take on a more profound meaning. Many different kinds of friendships can be found depicted in the media. From television shows like Friends, Girlfriends, and Seinfeld to movies that depict the ups and downs of friendships. People typically have more same-sex than cross-sex friendships (Booth Hess 1974; Ross, 1985). In this paper, I will discuss the differences and similarities of female-female and male-male friendships and use examples from two movies to show how the values and characteristics of these friendships differ and are alike. I will also be discussing cross-sex friendships (CSFs). There hasnt been as much research or theory on cross-sex friendships because for a long time, theorists and researchers viewed cross-sex friendships as potential romantic relationships (Bleske-Recheck Buss, 2001). This view has changed and there is now emerging research and study of difficulties and advantage of having and maintaining cross-sex friendships. I will also be discussing a movie that demonstrates the positive and negative features of cross-sex friendships. Male-Male Friendships Although there has been a rising popularity of depicting bromances (a term used to describe close male friendships) in the media, Traustadottir found that research has found that males have significantly fewer friends than women, especially close friendships or best friends. (2008 p.1) There are three main barriers that have been attributed to the lack of close friendships in men; competition between men, traditional masculine stereotypes about real men, and fear of homosexuality (Fasteau, 1991; McGill, 1985; Miller, 1983). The movie The Wood, is about three male friends from Inglewood, California who have grown apart and reunite back in their hometown during one of their weddings. The movie shows present-day and also flashback scenes to their childhood to show how their friendship developed. One of the flash-back scenes gives an example of the three barriers attributed to lack of closeness. The three main characters; Mike, Roland, and Slim in a pizza parlor discussing how their luck with the women is going during their junior year of high school. All three are talking about their frustration at still being virgins as sophomores (traditional masculine stereotypes), they begin to argue about who will lose their virginity first (fear of homosexuality) and decide to make it a competition by making a pot. Every week, they add a dollar to the pot and whoever loses their virginity first will receive the money (competition). Male friendships tend to emphasize activities and companionship and expressions of closeness felt between friends comes in the form of friendly teasing. Although male friendships are formed and maintained in ways that differ from female friendships, there are still some similarities that can be seen. Male friendships provide a release of stress and reduce depression in the same manner that women friendships do. Female-Female Friendships The differences in female friendships and male friendships is not in what is strived for in their close relationships i.e. intimacy, empathy, and trust; but in the means in which their friendship goals are accomplished. Women are naturally more apt to show emotions and this translates into the friendships they form as well. Traustadottir (2009) examination of female friendships found: Women typically describe their friendships in terms of closeness and emotional attachment. What characterizes friendships between women is the willingness to share important feelings, thoughts, experiences, and support. Women devote a good deal of time and intensity of involvement to friends. (p.1) Women are more open with affection and more likely to sincerely complimenting each other. While men use communication to accomplish things, communication is seen as a way to build and maintain intimacy and closeness in female friendships. This is why women are more likely to discuss personal thoughts, feelings, and problems with their friends (Greif 2009). In a survey done by Greif (2009) 71% of women stated that being understood (communication, sharing, caring, not being judged, and receiving feedback) to describe what friendship means. Only 51% of men surveyed answered the same. Demonstrating friendships with concrete acts (example. helping move, giving loan) was a choice that men responded to in the survey was not shown on the womens responses. In the movie, Waiting To Exhale, it depicts four female friends providing support and advice to each other through their dealing with men, families, and careers. This movie shows how female relationships are built on communication and emotional intimacy. Cross-Sex Friendships Because male and female same-sex friendships have different characteristic, it has been speculated that men and women cannot become and maintain strictly platonic friendships. Although much more difficult, successful cross-sex relationships are possible. There are at least four unique challenges facing individuals in cross-sex relationships: defining the relationship, managing sexual attraction, establishing equality, and managing interference of others (OMeara, 1989). The movie Brown Sugar is the story of two friends Dre and Sidney that met as children and have maintained their cross-sex friendship throughout their adulthood. In the movie, Dre starts dating a woman and they become engaged. This sparks questions and thoughts about Sidney and Dres own friendship and if there was any romantic feelings between them. One scene in the movie after Dre has become engaged, shows Sidney prepping and beautifying herself when Dre calls to say hes coming to visit. As she looks at herself in the mirror and fixes her hair and make-up, she pauses and asks herself What am I doing? Its just him. This scene shows how managing sexual attraction and clearly defining the relationship are concerns that come up even in long-term cross-sex friendships. Although difficult, there are benefits from cross-sex friendships that cannot be seen in same-sex friendships. Those benefits include, an increase of the understanding about beliefs and values of the other sex (Canary, Emmers-Sommers, Faulkner, 1997), verifying out attractiveness to the other sex (Rubin, 1985), protection, short-term sexual opportunities, self-expression, and intimacy (Bleske-Rechek and Buss 2000). Conclusion Developing and maintaining friendships is key in developing interpersonal skills. Although some friendships may be more easy to maintain than others, there are benefits to all types friendships and they are attainable if the parties involved value the relationship enough to put in the hard work and effort. References Alison P. LentonLaura Webber. (2006). Cross-sex Friendships: Who has More? Sex Roles, 54(11-12), 809-820. Retrieved April 12, 2010, from Psychology Module. (Document ID: 1175830101). Diane H Felmlee. (1999). Social norms in same- and cross-gender friendships. Social Psychology Quarterly, 62(1), 53-67. Retrieved April 12, 2010, from Research Library Core. (Document ID: 40396565). Greif, G. L. (2009). Buddy system: understandingÃ male friendships. New york: Oxford Universtiy Press. Matthijs Kalmijn. (2002). Sex Segregation of Friendship Networks. Individual and Structural Determinants of Having Cross-Sex Friends. European Sociological Review, 18(1), 101. Retrieved April 12, 2010, from Social Science Module. (Document ID: 323673221). Traustadottir, R. (2008, April). Gender patterns in friendships. Retrieved from http://thechp.syr.edu/genpat.htm
Thursday, September 19, 2019
American History Terms 1. Government role in RR building- Congress was impressed by arguments supporting military and postal needs and began to advance liberal money loans to two favored cross- continent companies in 1862 and added enormous donations of land and tracks. Within the routes the RRÃ¢â¬â¢s were allowed to choose alternate mile- square sections in checkerboard fashion 2. Significance of Transcontinental RR- A magnificent engineering feat- most impressive peacetime undertakings. Welded West Coast firmly to the Union. Facilitated flourishing trade with Asia. Stimulated growth with the West. Architectural feat- increased nationalism. Huge fortunes, jobs. 3. Stock watering - favorite device of the moguls of manipulation. Originally meant the practice of making cattle thirsty by feeding them salt and then having them bloat themselves with water before they weighed in for sale. Using a variation of this, RR stock promoters grossly inflated their claims about a given lineÃ¢â¬â¢s assets and profitability and sold stocks and bonds far in excess of the RRÃ¢â¬â¢s actual value. 4. Secret Rebates Ã¢â¬â kickbacks given to powerful shippers in return for steady and assured traffic- not given to everyone. Often slashed prices on competing lines, but more often mad up the difference on noncompeting ones 5. Wabash Case - 1886 Supreme Court ruled that said individual states had NO power to regulate interstate commerce. This would be done by the federal govÃ¢â¬â¢t 6. Interstate Commerce Act - Prohibited rebates and pools and required the railroads to publish their rates openly. Forbade discrimination against shippers and outlawed charging more for a short haul than for a long one over the same line. Created Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to enforce and administer the new legislation. It did not really beat corporate wealth, but it did provide a forum where businesses could resolve their conflicts peaceably. 7. Vertical and Horizontal integration - vertical integration was combining into one organization all phases of manufacturing from obtaining raw materials to marketing. It made supplies more reliable, controlled the quality of product at all states of production, and cut out middlemenÃ¢â¬â¢s fees and was perfected by Carnegie. Horizontal integration was consolidating with competitors to monopolize a given market, used a lot by Rockefeller. 8. TrustÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits Ã¢â¬â Gave consumers a superior product at a relatively cheap price. The efficient use of expensive machinery called large-scale production and consolidation proved more profitable than ruinous price wars. 9. Sherman Anti-Trust Act Ã¢â¬â 1890 Ã¢â¬â forbade combinations in restraint of trade, without any distinction between Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"badÃ¢â¬ trusts.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
A Student Evaluates the Websites of Three Shoe Companies Many companies now use websites to advertise their products. In this essay I will evaluate the effectiveness of several shoe websites. Three websites that I have been looked at are: www.nike.com (niketown), www.reebok.com, and www.adidas.com. They all are big companies that provide many kinds of shoes. Their websites looked similar in the first sight, but they are actually very different in several ways. My evaluation will be based on the navigation, contents, organization and layout of the websites, target audiences, user satisfaction with the websites, and how long the page takes to load. Navigation is one of the most important aspects in creating a good website. Navigation consists of several terms, such as: ease to use, internal link, broken link, internal search engine, and return to homepage from any page. Nike seems to have the best navigation from these threes websites. I can find things easily and I can go back to the homepage from any page. Reebok also has good navigation in its website, but it does not have a direct link to the homepage from any page. On the other hand, Adidas seems to be the most complicated website in terms of navigation. I need to spend a couple minutes to find a certain product. It has many internal links inside its website. Besides that, Adidas uses pop up windows in its website. Both Nike and Reebok also have a search engine at the top bar of their websites. This search bar can help consumers to find their desired product quickly, which I think that is very helpful. Unlike Adidas, which does not have a search engine in the website, so consumers have to browse all over the website in order to find the desired product. . The good thing about these three websites is they do not have a broken link, because they are being maintenance and updated all the time. Besides navigation, content is also a good consideration in order to create a good website. As I go into these three websites, I found that they all basically have the same content. They provide such important information about their products. They all also provide some details about their product such as, prices. The content that is provided by these websites is very attractive. They provide the image of the products that can be enlarged so consumers can look clearly at the desired products.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
History and Background Introduction The United States Postal Service (USPS) is an independent government organization that generates income through mail services. It is currently the second largest civilian employer in the United States. Its primary task is to deliver mail around the country, at a standard price, regardless of geographic location. Over the last two centuries, the USPS has evolved into an efficient organization that financially sustains itself through its delivery operations. With a monopoly on the delivery of non-urgent mail, the USPS provides delivery service of about 40 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s mail, or approximately 200 billion pieces of mail annually. Starting in the 1990s, the USPS faced increased competition from rival package delivery and courier services, as well as the Internet. Presently the USPS is facing a financial collapse. The USPS needs to undergo an essential and systematic change in order to maintain its significance in the 21st century. History/Background On July 26, 1775, members of the Second Continental Congress appointed a Postmaster General giving birth to the Postal Department of the United States. The mission of the U.S. Postal Department was much the same as today, process and deliver first class and non-urgent mail to individuals and businesses within the United States. Congress passed various laws that grant the post office a Ã¢â¬Å"statutory monopolyÃ¢â¬ on non-urgent First Class Mail and the exclusive right to put mail in private mailboxes. Although these laws grant the USPS a market advantaged they also restrict its ability to compete with rival package delivery and courier services, as well as the technological innovations. How it got started The Post Office Department has origins in America dating back to the 17th century, when there was a need for mail between colonial settlements and intercontinental exchange of information with England. In 1775, the Continental Congress named Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general and chairman of a committee empowered to make recommendations for the establishment of a postal service. On September 22, 1789 the post office became a new government branch of the United States. At this time there were 75 post offices and approximately 2,000 miles of post roads. The USPS was critical to national welfare and pivotal in facilitating communications for military, congressional representation and newspapers. From the very beginning, the USPS financed operations from revenue it earned and Congress gave it a monopoly to be the only courier service to deliver mail. Key points in evolution The main focus and the efforts of postal officials from the foundation of the Post Office to the present day have been finding the best methods of transporting information and directing mail. For example, in 1791 George Washington stated that that the importance of the postal routes had increased because the country wanted to distribute knowledge of governmental laws. Also, between 1791 and 1861, the U.S increased from 3.9 million to 31.4 million square miles and postal roads grew from 1,875 to 240,595 miles. The Board of Governors of the USPS sets policy, procedure, and postal rates for services rendered. Of the eleven members of the Board, nine are appointed by the President and confirmed by the US Senate. The nine appointed members then select the Postmaster General, who serves as the boardÃ¢â¬â¢s tenth member, and who oversees the day to day activities of the service as Chief Executive Officer. The ten-member board then nominates a Deputy Postmaster General, who acts as Chief Operating Officer, to the eleventh and last remaining open seat. The USPS is often mistaken as a government organization but it is legally defined as an Ã¢â¬Å"independent establishment of the executive branch of the Government of the United States.Ã¢â¬ Environmental context The external environment elements that significantly influence the USPS are the United States political system, workforce unions, changing technology and market forces. United States Political System In 1970 the U.S. Postal Department evolved into the USPS through the implementation of the Postal Reorganization act. This act required the USPS to be a Ã¢â¬Å"self-sufficient organization within the U.S. GovernmentÃ¢â¬ . It also added an additional regulatory body into its chain of command, the Postal Regulatory Commission (PRC), but did not make any modification to the Postal DepartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Board of Directors or regulatory congressional statutes. The USPS Board of directors is charged with directing the USPS through the control of expenditures, reviewing practices, long term planning and setting policies and service standards. The PRC has 5 commissioners, appointed through the executive branch and confirmed by the Senate, who have the authority to reject, modify and approve any USPS initiated congressional recommendations. Since congress alone retains the authority to change USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ rates, service frequency and employee benefits, any market related changes from the Board of directors is routed through the PRC and congress for consideration. Pressure from Unions There are 4 unions representing around 90% of the USPS workforce: National Association of Letter Carriers, American Postal Workers, National Rural Letters Carriers Association and National Postal Mail Handlers Union. These organizations have successfully contracted collective bargaining agreements for its members for compensation and benefits that have come to exceed the USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to maintain with its current revenues. These labor unions are very influential in weighing in on most of the decisions that affect the well-being of the USPS labor force. Presently USPS employees enjoy 79% coverage of their health care costs; the most of any federal agency. Strategic challenge Over the years the USPS has transformed its operating model and is now set up and mandated to operate like a business entity generating its revenue through the sale of postal products and services. The largest issue with the current business model of the postal service is its lack of flexibility essential for a business in a dynamic market. Specifically the USPS has not been able to organizationally adjust to a large decrease in the demand for first class mail service has resulted in decreasing net revenue in recent years. Congressional Influence The USPS congressional charter came with both benefits and operating constraints. Among the constraints the USPS is obligated to provide a uniform price for its services regardless of the geographic location and dispersion of its customer base. The USPS is obligated to deliver six days a week to every mailing address regardless of its mail volume. Additionally the USPS is required to provide free mailing service to the blind and facilitate voting for overseas military personnel. A significant amount of the USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ operating costs comes from its requirement to pre-fund retiree health benefits (RHB) for future retirees. Key Issues The USPS is suffering from the combined effects of declining mail volume from new technology and increasing labor costs resulting in a loss of net revenue. These declines are projected to extend into the future. The addition of a significant number of new addresses in the United States each year increases the USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ operating costs although volume is decreasing. Business Model Ã¢â¬â While the USPS has enjoyed the benefits of the monopoly on first class letter mail services that congress has bestowed, it has a stagnant business model that prevents the USPS from being able to adapt in the face of technological innovation and other market forces that affect its bottom line annually. The major source of revenue for the post office is the postage it charges for first class and non-standard mail. The advance of modern information systems such as email, smartphones, online banking, and other digital communications decreased the demand for traditional mail services. Compounding this issue is the basic economic principle of supply and demand. New technologies offer cheaper substitutes for the services that the post office provides. Stakeholders Postal Workers Ã¢â¬â The USPS employs more than 500,000 employees making it second only to Wal-Mart as the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s largest civilian employer. While every employee is represented by a labor union, employees are legally restricted from striking. Labor Unions Ã¢â¬â The USPS unions are old, influential and politically connected. Collectively, these unions continually fight for increased employee pay, living allowances and health care benefits. Postal Regulation Commission (PRC) Ã¢â¬â The PRC serves as the middleman between the USPS board of governors and congress. The PRC can reject or modify requests before they reach congress for final approval. Congress Ã¢â¬â Members of Congress exercise control over many aspects of the USPS operations including approving the markets for which it competes as well as representing the interests of its constituents whenever the USPS requests changes to its business model. Public Consumer Ã¢â¬â One of the mandates of the post office is to provide mail service of all addresses. The number of addresses has increased by nearly 18 million nationwide in the past decade and continues to climb as the country recovers from the past recession. A vast majority of the consumers are congressional constituents to whom member of congress are responsible. Competitors The USPS monopolizes, via congressional mandates, the delivery of first class mail, non-urgent mail and small packages. As such it faces very little direct competition from other businesses. However, the USPS has seen significant decreases in its mail volume over the years. The decreased volume of mail is directly related to the global acceptance of technology and use of digital communications which displaced traditional USPS services. Market Forces The USPS full time workers cost the USPS 80% of its revenue. Although they still enjoy a monopoly on first class mail, they are in direct competition with smaller, more efficient, companies who deliver large packages and urgent letters. Strategies Used What it Does Now Ã¢â¬â The USPS has improved its efficiency and effectiveness through both technology and reorganization. The USPS made significant investments in the late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s in fuel efficient vehicles and new facilities as well as a $15 million advertising campaign to improve its image as a progressive and modern organization. A decade ago it took 70 employees one hour to sort 35,000 letters. Today in an hour, only two employees process an identical volume of mail. Though the number of addresses in the nation has increased by nearly 18 million in the past decade, the number of employees who handle the increased delivery load has decreased by more than 200,000 (Potter 2010a). It launched delivery confirmation service and priority mail in order to compete with competitors. The USPS now operates more than 31,000 post offices and the largest vehicle fleet in the world, with an estimated 218,684 vehicles. What They Want to Do Ã¢â¬â Concerned with increasing costs and decreasing revenues, the USPS petitioned for the following changes: * Stop Retiree Health Benefits prefunding Ã¢â¬â in 2011 the prefunding amount exceeded net operating losses. * Retirement System Overpayment Ã¢â¬â In 2010 Government Accountability Office disputed overpayment freezing approximately $6.9 billion. * Delivery Frequency Ã¢â¬â Shifting from six to five days weekly delivery would save approximately $3 billion annually. This measure is supported by 75% of USPS consumer base. * Change prices Ã¢â¬â Mandates currently cap the USPS ability to adjust to market conditions dynamically. * Restructure labor costs Ã¢â¬â Current collective bargaining decision do not consider the USPS financial health yet mandate compensation and benefits to be paid at levels comparable with private sector organizations with the burden falling on the taxpayers. * Consolidate infrastructure Ã¢â¬â A proposal in 2009 to close 3,000 postal outlets to reduce excess capacity yielded only a closure of 157 following consumer complaints and congressional intervention. Part II Diagnosis Lewis (2011) states that the USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ problems are a result of a restrictive business model and its inflexibility to operate in a dynamic market place. As stated earlier, the USPS response to this problem is a direct plan to cut expenses and increase revenues to overcome their mounting deficit. Although this plan does address the USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ immediate insolvency concerns, it fails to address their underlying issues. Through the use of SengeÃ¢â¬â¢s system approach and the McCaskeyÃ¢â¬â¢s Organizational Design model, this paper will expose USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ root problems. Strategic Issues/Strategies/Goals-Objectives The USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ strategic issues are a loss of revenue due to declining mail volume, extensive costs due to a bloated and expensive unionized-workforce and the use of an outdated-legislatively constrained business plan. Their proposed strategy to mitigate these issues centers on cutting their expenses, consolidating infrastructure, renegotiating labor cost/employee benefits and increasing rates. In addition, the USPS intends to evolve their business plan to incorporate technological innovations. This strategy aligns with their long term goal of providing a Ã¢â¬Å"trustworthy, dependable, reliable and secure means to communicate on a national levelÃ¢â¬ (Lewis, 2011), by implementing a long term sustainable business model that promotes flexibility and economic growth in a dynamic market. Environment In FY11 the USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ total revenues were $65 Billion dollars while their total expenses were $75 Billion dollars. Under congressional law the USPS is required to be a Ã¢â¬Å"self-sufficient government agencyÃ¢â¬ . Under this direction the USPS is obligated to cover its costs without government assistance. The USPS does this by generating revenues from a monopoly market while operating more like a private business then a government agency. Its government backed monopoly advantage comes with extensive congressional restrictions on rates, delivery procedures and labor benefits. The USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ monopoly restricts the direct competition in the delivery of first class mail, use of specific delivery routes and personal mailboxes. It does not protect the delivery of urgent mail and large packages. FedEx and UPS are direct competitors in this market and have a competitive advantage due to their efficiencies, technological innovations and ability adapt to market needs. Key Success Factors The USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ key to success is their ability to meet their customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, generate enough revenue to cover their costs , maintain the flexibility to adjust in a dynamic market and optimize a scalable infrastructure that facilitates the efficient and economic delivery of their services. Task Requirements There are multiple ways that mail is accepted into the delivery process. For the purpose of observing the USPS organizational structure, the simple method of customers placing the mail in their residential, or post office, curbside mailbox will be examined. In either case this process begins and ends with the customer sending or receiving mail at a mailbox. The mail item is received by the postal carrier, and then consolidated at the local post office, where it is inspected manually or automatically checked for correct postage. It is then routed to a hub for delivery to a particular region in the country. The mail is then sent to a final processing plant where it is sorted for the specific route for delivery. Finally the mail is sent to the distant end post office for delivery to the end customer. The mail is moved in a linear manner between each node in the process chain. Along the interdependency continuum of the USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ functional units we observed a sequential relationship. Throughout the process each entity produces an output that is a necessary input for the next link in the chain. The USPSÃ¢â¬â¢ key to success in this linear process is the secure delivery of mail for a nominal fee. For their part, the workers must be honest and ensure mail is properly safeguarded as it makes its way through each step in the chain. The workers only have to be Ã¢â¬Ëgood enoughÃ¢â¬â¢ for their specific task in the process. This means that there is very little incentive for them to innovate or make improvements to the process from within. Any efficiencies gained, in any one link in the process, are not readily propagated throughout because of the sequential nature of the process. Because of the nature of change within the organization, and the employee compensation structure, their only incentive is to maintain the status quo. This analysis is represented in the interdependency/coordination mechanism model below. The analysis shows a misalignment between the levels of interdependence between the functional units and the coordination mechanism used. The USPS coordinates through rules and regulations. Using the systems approach of focusing on successes rather than the failures of the organization, we compared the USPS current coordination level to its closest successful competitor, FEDEX. As depicted FEDEX has a coordination level that aligns with it level of interdependency. The preferred and optimal approach is to align the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s level of interdependency horizontally with the coordination mechanism. The USPS needs a higher coordination mechanism to match the current level of interdependence in order to facilitate efficiencies in the system. Process/ Systems Snowfall and showers may not be able to stop postal carriers from their appointed delivery routes, but their financial problems may halt at least 50% of all postal offices. The U.S. Postal Service, weakened by a public turning to digital communications, is down 22 percent in volume from just five years ago, a decline which is expected to continue, driven in part by rigid competition from carriers such as FedEx and UPS. The Postmaster General has responded with a list of cost-cutting proposals, such as eliminating Saturday delivery and closing up to 3,700 local post offices which would be replaced with automated centers operating out of local businesses. The Postmaster General has also proposed laying off as many as 120,000 workers, and pulling workers out of more costly federal pension plans. Pre-funding retiree benefits has cost the Postal Service $21 billion in the last three years. The underlying issue is that all those moves cannot be made without congressional approval. In order to make these immediate and dramatic changes, the Postal Service would require access to its own funds as well as the authority to act as its own corporation. The transition from a government ran entity to a privatized organization requires Congress to give the USPS flexibility to take action and make changes without all the bureaucracy. The below modified Senge Model (Limit to Growth) demonstrates how the USPS is constrained from making changes. In short, the USPS is limited by congress to making quick and reactive changes that focus on the problem rather than the underlying issue. Creating change and making it work are all resisted by a condition called the Ã¢â¬Å"Status QuoÃ¢â¬ and the USPS is no exception. USPS employees feel protected under the current unionized culture. They feel threatened by the prospect of losing benefits and are unwilling to pay the high personal price necessary for change. We have demonstrated that this change is necessary for the long term health of the organization. The real question is, Ã¢â¬Å"does the current status quo fit the new change requirements?Ã¢â¬ An organization in dire need to make radical adjustments to become current cannot be fixed with antiquated congressional imposed constraints. PART III Change Management Plan The USPS acknowledges its need to cut costs and increase revenue. It believes this will fix the problems. USPS starts to address this by taking reactionary measures, but fails to take the necessary steps to address the root issue. We argue that there is a more fundamental problem within the USPS organization which requires a systems approach to identify and solve. Senge says Ã¢â¬Å"it is impossible to change the system from inside the system.Ã¢â¬ By Ã¢â¬Å"complicating upÃ¢â¬ the USPS management structure we identify the core problem and faults in its system. Due to the short time needed to enact this change we propose a top down approach that pushes change while mitigating assumed employee resistance such an approach will generate. Our plan uses the Lewin and Kotter models to shape the USPS organizational transition. Through the Lewin model we identify a three phase approach to address changes that simultaneously focuses on employee and organizational issues. Throughout each p hase an information plan is propagated to employees to facilitate transition to the next phase. Conclusion The bottom line is that the USPS current costs of doing business outweigh its current methods of productivity. Without changing the strategic management model, the USPS will continue to lose revenue and be unable to react effectively to market demands. Its proposed cost cutting solutions only scratches the surface of the underlying problem of restrictions on organizational management and coordination. Our uses validated organizational change models. We justify our plan which uses the Lewin model and shows a close association to KotterÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational change model. Our plan leads the USPS to long term success, maintains its relevance in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s market and allows it to make appropriate changes through periodic reevaluations. References Lewis, T., Montgomery C., Shuler, J. , (2011), The US Postal Service , Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Senge, P., (1990), The Fifth Discipline, Doubleday Publishing, New York 15May 2012: http://about.usps.com/news/national-releases/2011/pr11_124.htm> 15 May 2012: http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cj31n1/cj31n1-9.pdf 19 May 2012: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/industries/Transportation-Communications-Utilities/United-States-Postal-Service.html
Monday, September 16, 2019
Cremation is more important than burial in which religion? a. Buddhism b. chrlstlanltyc. Hinduism d. Islamoc 2 The dominant branch of Islam is a. Druze b. Eastern Orthodox c. Shiited. Sunni00 3. From the Russian Revolution to the tall ot the communist government, what was the policy of the government towards religion? all churches were closed b, the old church was replaced by Eastern Orthodoxc. churches remained open but played a limited role d. youth were encouraged to attend so that the could be Indoctrinated Into 4.Animists believe that a, people should complete God's creation of the Earthb. Inanimate objects and atural events have spirits c. people should make complete use of the Earth's resources natural disasters are preventableO[7 5, The world's largest ethnic religion is a. Buddhism b. Christianityc. Hinduism d. IslamC0 The world's largest universalizing religion Is a, Buddhismb. Christianity c. Hinduism d, IslamC? 7. Which is not an ethnic Asian religion? a. Buddhism b. Conf ucianism c. Shintoism d. DaolsmL]L] 8.Lutheranism Is an example of a Christian branchb_ denomination c. religion d. sectnn 9. What policy did the British follow in India? a. they divided India into two countries they forced all of the Hindus to migrate c. hey turned the problem over to the united Nationsd. they encouraged the abolishment ot the caste system00 10. Worship in Hinduism is most likely to take place a, In a holy shrine b. as part ofa pilgrimage'c. at home d. In a pagodaClD 11, The belief in the existence of only one god is a. anlmlsm b. osmogonyc. monotheism d. solstlceoc 12 Roman Catholics are clustered In the LJ_S_ southwest primarily because of migration ofa. Roman Catholics from Latin America b. Roman Catholics from the northeast U. S. c. Roman Catholics trom Ireland d. Protestants to the northCC 13. Hinduism's caste systema_ assigns everyone to a distinct class decrees the ilgrimages which should be taken c. is a substitute for the lack of a holy book d. identifies a family's important deities0C 14. A universalizing religion a.Is based on the physical characterlstlcs of a particular location on Earthb. appeals to people living In a wide variety of locations c. Is rarely transmitted through missionaries d. is intentionally developed to be a world religion0L] 15 What Is the holiest book In Hinduism? a. the Bible b. the Old Testament c. the Qurand. none of the above?0 16. The goal of the majority ot people living in Northern Ireland is toa. remain part ot the United Ireland d. Join the Irish Republican Army00
Sunday, September 15, 2019
This paper will include: the current health care expenditures whether spending is too much or not enough, where the nation should add or cut, how the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s health care needs are paid and provide a forecast for: the future economic needs, why these needs must be addressed, how I envision these needs will be financed and conclusion. Current Health Expenditures Health care costs have been rising for several years. Expenditures in the United States on health care surpassed $2.3 trillion in 2008, more than three times the $714 billion spent in 1990, and over eight times the $253 billion spent in 1980. Stemming this growth has become a major policy priority, as the government, employers, and consumers increasingly struggle to keep up with health care cost. Hospital spending, the largest share of overall health care spending, is a major driver of increased costs The current national expenditure have tripled over the last decade especially in hospital care, physician/clinical services and drug ( Kaiser, 2010). The United States is at an all time high in health care. In the health care system there are some factors that contribute to this increase. It is getting to the point that more and more Americans cannot afford health care, because of the cost of health care is getting harder to maintain for their families. Whether Spending is too much or not enough It is difficult to pin point one exact factor why spending is escalating. The chart below states that hospital care, physician/clinical services and prescription drugs are where the most spending is taking place (Kaiser, 2010). This shows we are spending too much, especially in these top three categories listed. When health care cost is steadily increasing, so we are spending a great deal in the list above. National Health Expenditures, 2008 [pic] Source: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Office of the Actuary, National Health Statistics Group Where the Nation Should Add or Cut Medicare and Medicaid account for a significant share of health care spending (Kaiser, 2010) and also according to the above chart we could cut in the hospital care, physician/clinical services and prescription drugs. This is why we need to cut as far as the nation is concerned because these government programs Medicare and Medicaid are funding health cost at a steady growth. We have to work on controlling this program before it controls us. If we do not start cutting from somewhere we will be in a serious deficit for health care in the United States. Then we need to cut prescription drugs cost, so it can be affordable to everyone, so the government needs to intercede the pharmaceutical companies closely to manage this expense. How the PublicÃ¢â¬â¢s Health Care needs are Paid Although Americans benefit from many of the investments in health care, the recent rapid cost growth, coupled with an overall economic slowdown and rising federal deficit, is placing great strains on the systems used to finance health care, including private employer-sponsored health insuranceÃ coverage and public insurance programs such as Medicare and Medicaid ( Kaiser, 2010 ). The publicÃ¢â¬â¢s health care payments are paid by Medicaid and Medicare if eligible for this government health program and other private health insurance companies, for example: Blue cross and Blue Shield, Aetna, Cigna and United Health Care are just a few the public health care is paid. There are some people who pay out of pocket, whether they can afford it or not. Forecast: the Future Economic needs Scott Donahue, vice president of Triple Tree healthcare advisory group, agrees, pointing to statistics such as those found in the 2009 PricewaterhouseCoopers Health Research Institute study that revealed nearly one half of the $2.2 trillion the United States spends each year on healthcare is wasted. Ã¢â¬Å"While it is impossible to point to any single breakdown contributing to the waste, it is clear from the studyÃ¢â¬â¢s findings that this is an industry that has significantly underutilized technology to improve efficiencies,Ã¢â¬ he says, adding that cloud computing could help mend a healthcare system that is stuck in the inefficiencies and limitations found in older legacy systems (Chavis, 2011). There needs to be an investment in our technology system for health care for example: electronic medical records (EMR) to better serve the patients and technology that is being required to give quality service and modify the providerÃ¢â¬â¢s wages, since in the hospital this is the biggest cost. This is a start in the direction to accommodate the Americans who cannot afford health care. These small changes can contribute to a clear forecast in health care. Forecast: why these needs must be address This issue needs to be address because health care cost is soaring and if we do not intercept and make some real changes the American people will not afford medical services. The health providerÃ¢â¬â¢s and facilities are making big money and they need to work with the people to help with this expense we have made. The government can help by fine tuning the Medicare and MedicaidÃ program, so people can benefit fairly from it. We need to get proactive in prevention, so we our bodies will stay healthy for a long life. Forecast: how I envision these needs will be financed I envision a new administration making some major changes to make health care affordable for all Americans. The private insurance companies will need to work on some alternative health care package to their consumers for health care cost. The government in Washington to stop thinking of them and focus on health care cost, so all can manage health expense and get continued quality care also. Conclusion The bottom line we need to concentrate on cutting cost of health care and quality care, which we all deserve as human beings. There is not just one factor that contributes to the health expenditure but several pieces to this puzzle that makes this a major health cost issue. We need to find ways to decrease spending too much, so people can benefit from their health plan. The nation should consider cutting hospital care, clinical services and prescription drugs, since these are the top expenses for health care. This would definitely clear a path for reduced cost. The public can barely afford to pay premiums to their private health insurance companies but if they want coverage they have to pay. The oneÃ¢â¬â¢s who qualify for Medicare and Medicaid will get help from this government program for health care cost and yes some people still pay out of pocket to maintain their health conditions. Technology is one investment to keep up with the growing health care needs of people. We must address these health cost concerns or they will get out of control, so we need to be proactive getting health care financially in shape to accommodate medical service to all. I envision that all people will be covered by health care regardless of economic background. Americans need to get resources to take better care of their health and invest in prevention, so our health will not result in a chronic illness or an incurable disease. Then maybe the law makers in Washington will make soundÃ decision about our health care plan from other health care providers, so we can benefit and help with cost diminishing. References Access My Library. (2004). Health Care Spending Hits 1.6 Trillion in 2002, Rising More Than Twice as Fast as U.S. Economy. Retrieved from http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-19942976_ITM Chavis, S. (2011). Cloudy Forecast for Health. For the Record, 23(4), 10. Getzen, T., Moore, J. (2007). Wiley Pathways health care Economics (1st. ed.). John Wiley & Sons. Kaiser. (2010). U.S. Health Care Costs. Retrieved from http://www.kaiseredu.org/Issue- Modules/US-Health-Care-Costs/Background-Brief.aspx#.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
6 Histology Review Supplement Cardiovascular Tissue Review From the PhysioEx main menu, select Histology Atlas. Click on the white Sort By drop-down menu and select Histology Review from the list. Refer to the slides in the Cardiovascular Tissue Slides folder as you complete this worksheet. Which component of the intercalated disc is a junction that provides the intercellular communication required for the myocardium to perform as a functional syncytium? Gap junctions Heart The heart is a four-chambered muscular pump.Although its wall can be divided into three distinct histological layers (endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium), the cardiac muscle of the myocardium composes the bulk of the heart wall. Blood Vessels Blood vessels form a system of conduits through which lifesustaining blood is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body and back to the heart again. Generally, the wall of every vessel is described as being composed of three layers, or tunics. The tunica intima, o r tunica interna, a simple squamous endothelium and a small amount of subjacent loose connective tissue, is the innermost layer adjacent to the vessel lumen.Smooth muscle and elastin are the predominant constituents of the middle tunica media, and the outermost tunica adventitia, or tunica externa, is a connective tissue layer of variable thickness that provides support and transmits smaller blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves. The thickness of each tunic varies widely with location and function of the vessel. Arteries, subjected to considerable pressure fluctuations, have thicker walls overall, with the tunica media being thicker than the tunica adventitia. Read Renal System Physiology PhysioexVeins, in contrast, are subjected to much lower pressures and have thinner walls overall, with the tunica adventitia often outsizing the tunica media. Because thinwalled veins conduct blood back to the heart against gravity, valves (not present in arteries) also are present at intervals to prevent backflow. In capillaries, where exchange occurs between the blood and tissues, the tunica intima alone composes the vessel wall. The tunica media of the aorta would have a much greater proportion of what type of tissue than a small artery?Elastic fibers In general, which vessel would have a larger lumen, an artery or its corresponding vein? Click slide 1. Contractile cardiac muscle cells (myocytes, myofibers) have the same striated appearance as skeletal muscle, but are branched rather than cylindrical in shape and have one (occasionally two) nucleus (myonucleus) rather than many. The cytoplasmic striations represent the same organization of myofilaments (sarcomeres) and alignment of sarcomeres as in skeletal muscle, and the mechanism of contraction is the same. The intercalated disc, however, is a feature unique to cardiac muscle.The Cardiovascular SystemThe densely stained structure is a complex of intercellular junctions (desmosomes, gap junctions, fasciae adherens) that structurally and functionally link cardiac muscle cells end to end. A second population of cells in the myocardium composes the noncontractile intrinsic conduction system (nodal system). Although cardiac muscle is autorhythmic, meaning it has the ability to contract involuntarily in the absence of extrinsic innervation provided by the nervous system, it is the intrinsic conduction system that prescribes the rate and orderly sequence of contraction. Extrinsic innervation only modulates the inherent activity.Click slide 2. Of the various components of the noncontractile intrinsic conduction system, Purkinje fibers are the most readily observed histologically. They are particularly abundant in the ventricular myocardium and are recognized by their very pale-staining cytoplasm and larger diameter. The connective tissue component of cardiac muscle is relatively sparse and lacks the organization present in skeletal muscle. Which component of the intercalated disc is a strong intercellular junction that functions to keep cells from being pulled apart during contraction? Desmosomes What is a functional syncytium?Cardiac muscle cell are mechanically, chemically and electrically connected to one another Why would the tunica media and tunica adventitia not be present in a capillary? The capillaries are very thin and have only room for layer of endothelial tissue, in the form of tunica intimaR E V I E W NAMELAB TIME/DATES H E E T EXERCISE 31 > Print FormConduction System of the Heart and Electrocardiography The Intrinsic Conduction System1. List the elements of the intrinsic conduction system in order, starting from the SA node.SA node > artioventricu lar node > > artioventricular bundle bundle branches purkinje fibers artioventricular node At what structure in the transmission sequence is the impulse temporarily delayed? Why? because it ensures that the atria have ejected their blood into the ventricles first before they contract.2. Even though cardiac muscle has an inherent ability to beat, the nodal system plays a critical role in heart physiology. What is that role? generate action potential at a greater frequency than other cardiac muscle cells. They are the pace m the heart. It sets the heart rate under normal circumstances. Electrocardiography3. Define ECG. The graphic recording of the electrical changes occurring during the cardiac cycle4. Draw an ECG wave form representing one heartbeat. Label the P, QRS, and T waves; the PÃ¢â¬âR interval; the SÃ¢â¬âT segment, and the QÃ¢â¬âT interval. R S T P T Q P-R interval S Q-T interval5. Why does heart rate increase during running? The heart must beat faster and harder in order to deliver the larger amount of blood to muscles being used when running. 2076. Describe what happens in the cardiac cycle in the following situations. . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. immediately before the P wave: during the P wave: heart is in diastole depolarization of ventricles contraction of atria immediately after the P wave (PÃ¢â¬âR segment): during the QRS wave: depolarization of ventricles contraction of ventricles immediately after the QRS wave (SÃ¢â¬âT interval): during the T wave: repolarization of ventricles7. Define the following terms. 1. 2. 3. tachycardia: bradycardia: fibrillation: a heart rate over 100 beats/min a heart rate below 60 beats/min rapid uncoordinated heart contractions that makes heart useless as a pump ventricular fibrillation8. Which would be more serious, atrial or ventricular fibrillation? Why? when heart is in V-fib you are dead unless it can be shocked back into rhythm with atrial fibrillation9. Abnormalities of heart valves can be detected more ac curately by auscultation than by electrocardiography. Why is this so? Abnormal heart valves cause extra heart sounds that can be heard with stethoscope. EEG just measures electrical activity in the heart. It doesn't show how the valve works.208 Review Sheet 31R E V I E W NAMELAB TIME/DATES H E E T EXERCISEAnatomy of the Heart Gross Anatomy of the Human Heart1. An anterior view of the heart is shown here. Match each structure listed on the left with the correct letter in the figure. G J R U B K D N A 1. right atrium2. right ventricle3. left atrium c a b o4. left ventricle5. superior vena cava6. inferior vena cava7. ascending aorta8. aortic arch9. brachiocephalic artery10. left common carotid artery11. left subclavian artery12. pulmonary trunk13. right pulmonary artery14. left pulmonary artery15. ligamentum arteriosum16. ight pulmonary veins17. left pulmonary veins18. right coronary artery19. anterior cardiac vein T S W X V20. left coronary artery21. circumflex artery22. anterior inte rventricular artery23. apex of heart24. great cardiac veinWhat is the function of the fluid that fills the pericardial sac? environment. It allows the heart to beat in a relatively frictionless 3. Match the terms in the key to the descriptions provided below.F A H E A G B D G C1. location of the heart in the thorax2. superior heart chambers3. nferior heart chambers4. visceral pericardium5. Ã¢â¬Å"anteroomsÃ¢â¬ of the heart6. equals cardiac muscle7. provide nutrient blood to the heart muscle8. lining of the heart chambers9. actual Ã¢â¬Å"pumpsÃ¢â¬ of the heart10. drains blood into the right atriumKey: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. atria coronary arteries coronary sinus endocardium epicardium mediastinum myocardium ventricles4. What is the function of the valves found in the heart? Prevents back flow of blood5. What is the role of the chordae tendineae? enforce a one way blood flow through the heart chambersTheir called heart strings, and anchor the cusps to the ventricular walls Pulm onary, Systemic, and Cardiac Circulations6. A simple schematic of a so-called general circulation is shown below. What part of the circulation is missing from this diagram? Pulmonary circulation Add to the diagram as best you can to make it depict a complete systemic/pulmonary circulation. Label the systemic and pulmonary circulations. pulmonary ve heart pulmonary pulmonary Heart Systemic arteries Systemic capillaries Systemic veins systemic 202 Review Sheet 307.Differentiate clearly between the roles of the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Pulmonary circulation is only to provide gas exchange in the lungs; The systemic circulation provides the functional blood supply to all body tissues8. Complete the following scheme of circulation of a red blood cell in the human body. Right atrium through the tricuspid valve to the semilunar beds of the lungs, to the the biscuspid aorta right ventricle , through the pulmonary arteries pulmonary , to the capillary of the heart, through , thro ugh the aortic semilunar of the , and alve to the pulmonary trunk, to the pulmonary veins valve to the , to the left ventricle left atrium valve to the , to the systemic arteries, to the superior vena cava , capillary beds tissues, to the systemic veins, to the coronary sinus ; cardiac veins inferior vena cava entering the right atrium of the heart. pulmonary circulation9. If the mitral valve does not close properly, which circulation is affected?10. Why might a thrombus (blood clot) in the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery cause sudden death? I can cut off the blood supply to the heart, resulting in death.Microscopic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle11. How would you distinguish the structure of cardiac muscle from that of skeletal muscle? skeletal muscle is long, sylindrical, multinucleated cells ; has striations. Cardiac muscles branch, striated, uni-mucleated cells that interdigitate at the junctions12. Add the following terms to the photograph of cardiac muscle bel ow. a. intercalated disc b. nucleus of cardiac fiber c. striations d. cardiac muscle fiber interca Describe the unique anatomical features of cardiac muscle. What role does the unique structure of cardiac muscle play in its function?The intercalated discs have 2 important functions striatio nucleu1) holds the myocytes together so they don't part w heart contracts.2) allows an electrical connection between the cells, which is vital to the function of cardia the heart as a whole.Also has many mitochondria that provide energy required for contraction.Ã 203 Review Sheet 30 Dissection of the Sheep Heart13. During the sheep heart dissection, you were asked initially to identify the right and left ventricles without cutting into the heart. During this procedure, what differences did you observe between the two chambers? eft ventricle was thick and solid, and the right was thinner and easily moved and flabby When you measured thickness of ventricular walls, was the right or left ventricl e thicker? left ventricle Knowing that structure and function are related, how would you say this structural difference reflects the relative functions of these two heart chambers? Theres a greater demand on the longer systemic circulation and has a higher resistance than the pulmonary circulation14. Semilunar valves prevent backflow into the atria ventricles ; AV valves prevent backflow into the Using your own observations, explain how the operation of the semilunar valves the mitral valve allows the blood to flow from the left atrium into left ventricle differs from that of the AV valves. tricuspid valve stops back flow of blood between th two. The semilunar valves permit blood to be forced into the but prevent back flow of blood from the arteries into the ventricles.15. Compare and contrast the structure of the right and left atrioventricular valves. has 3 flapped valve. the mitral valve contains 2 flaps, tricuspi16.Two remnants of fetal structures are observable in the heartÃ¢â ¬âthe ligamentum arteriosum and the fossa ovalis. What were they called in the fetal heart, where was each located, and what common purpose did they serve as functioning fetal structures? ligamentum arteriosm- called ducts arterious in fetal heart. located between the pulmonary trunk and aortic arch In adults ligament there now. Allows blood to flow from pulmonary trunk to systemic circulation.17. Fossa Ovaliscalled foramen ovale in fetal heart, located on right atrium wall and wall of right ventricle.Allowed blood to enter 204 Review Sheet 30