Friday, May 31, 2019
The Glass Ceiling PhenomenonThe Glass Ceiling is a barrier to prevent women rising to thehighest positions in an constitution as a result of informalexclusionary practices (cited in Giddens 2002, pg, 552). Thesepractices include sexual harassment, sexual discrimination andpregnancy discrimination.Explanations for the glass ceiling phenomena derive from thestereotype of women into traditional roles. Many men still carry theattitude despite living in this modern day and age that women argon notcapable of high managerial roles and that their place rightfullybelongs at home along with the house-hold chores. There is also thepoint that many corporate firms think twice before employing women forthe efflorescence position, in terms of their level of commitment, for it isinevitable that every woman will want to have a child at some point intheir life. However maternity leave is viewed upon as an expense interms of money and the valuable time that is wasted in order to fillthe indolent po sition.The organisational structure is another barrier that women have tocontend with for it is evident that most firms are male dominated andhuddle together when it comes to after work friendly activities, thusleaving the woman to feel as an out cast.An article published in The Guardian 25/09/2002 backs The GlassCeiling phenomena as it shows that women are still not making it tothe top of their professions, despite thirty years of equalopportunities policies in the public and voluntary sectors. Whilethere may be some women higher up in management it can be argued thatthese are just token positions so that the corporate managementcannot be incriminate of discrimination. Those few who are successful inmaking it are then dealt the blow of being paid substantially less
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Androgynous Characters in Thomas Hardys NovelsAndrogyny may be defined as a condition under which the characteristics of the sexes, and the human impulses expressed by custody and women, are not rigidly assigned (Heilbrun 10). In the middle of the Victorian Era, Thomas Hardy opposed conventional norms by creating androgynous characters such as Eustacia Vye, in The Return of the Native the title character in Tess of the d Urbervilles Sue Bridehead in Jude the Obscure and Marty South in The Woodlande rs. Hardys women, possessing prodigious energy, stunted opportunity, and a passion which challenges the entire, limiting world (Heilbrun 70), often resemble men in actions and behavior. Eustacia Vye may be considered androgynous for her passion, rebelliousness, and refusal to accept the confines of Egdon. She exists in a state of untamed romantic emotion and fantasy, and has little concern for the do of her actions. These characteristics of Eustacia make her less typical of women dur ing the Victorian Era, but the scene in which her androgynous behavior is most evident...
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
The Hitchhikers level to the GalaxyAs the human race makes life-changing discoveries, it is made apparent that there is always much to chance on as the universe, instead of becoming familiar, is becoming absurd. The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy, written by Douglas Adams, as well as the 2005 film adaption, portrays giddiness to be an across-the-board system in the universe. Through the introduction and attempt to understand lack of reason, the narration of important fragments and the human perception of the universe, the fresh is as a whole, more complete than the film. With these points it is irrefutable that The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy develops the theme of absurdity with greater prowess than the film, resulting in a deeper understanding of absurdity, with an outlook the reader earth-closet yoke to.The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy introduces absurdity in a more compelling way than the film. The Infinite Improbability Drive passes through either point in the U niverse, (Adams 80). After being thrown out of an airlock, Arthur and Ford are rescued by the Drive with the chance of rescue being 22079460347 to maven against, (Adams 67). Being rescued despite an astronomical improbability allows the novel to empower the theme of absurdity in a noteworthy way. The prominent focus the novel has on absurdity vastly differs from the minimal effort made in the film to evidently develop a source of absurdity in the universe, electronegative The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. Furthermore, the novels depiction of the search for reason among the predominant lack of reason adds a very important human element to the understanding of absurdity. While undergoing the effects of the Drive A million-gallon vat of custard upended itself over ... ... of this ideology in a way the reader can connect to. Through the foundation and attempt to understand the lack of reason, clear narration of important text and a human perception of absurdity, the novel prominen tly transcends the absurdity presented in the film. Absurdity is conveyed to be a school of thought, wherein humans attempt to answer and quantify the grandest questions of the universe, but ultimately come to a conclusion that the greatest answers are beyond us. As George Bernard Shaw said, The more you learn, the more you know. The more you know, the more you forget. The more you forget, the less you know. So why bother to learn?Works CitedAdams, Douglas. The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. London Pan Macmillan Adult, 2002. The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. Dir. Garth Jennings. With Martin Freeman, Mos Def. Touchstone Pictures, 2005.
Glenn Dale HospitalBackgroundOver the recent break, I mentioned to a friend that I needed to release ab prohibited a ghost-related urban legend. He offered to tell me about Glenn Dale Hospital, which is supposedly a famous ghost legend in Maryland. Since I am a lifelong Maryland resident and did not know about the hospital, I was eager to hear the story. The story was told in the living room of a residence by a 19 year old white male native to southern Maryland. He is from a middle class family and his father and bewilder are a construction worker and a homemaker, respectively. He heard the story from another friend who claims to have visited Glenn Dale Hospital.The StorySo, in the 30s and 40s they used to enchant tuberculosis patients to the Glenn Dale hospital for treatment. normal relaxed tone Eventually it was converted into an insane asylum and it became notorious for its treatment of patients. The staff experimented on the patients and locked them up all day. One day , all the patients revolted and the doctors ran out of the hospital and boarded up all the doors and windows. talking faster The patients were left inside to die and the hospital was abandoned. The insane still wander the halls. Today, if you sneak in the hospital you will be chased by the ghosts of the patients and catch tuberculosis. My friend went there and swears he saw a ghost watching him from the shadows, and he wont go closelipped that place anymore gestures with hand in horizontal motion. The cops arrest anyone they catch trespassing, but they say the cops wont go in the hospital subsequently you if you need help.ContextThere is evidence to support some of this story. According to a Washington Post name from December 10, 2006, Glenn Dale Hospital does exist on over 200 acres in Prince Georges County, Maryland. In fact, it did house tuberculosis patients starting in the mid-thirties. However, that is essentially all the truth in the story. The article states, It G len Dale Hospital was never an insane asylum, as urban explorers and paranormal researchers suggest on the internet. Since it was never an asylum, the idea of a revolt and the insane wandering the halls must not be true. Since tuberculosis does not last for decades without human hosts, it is impossible to catch the disease just by exploring the hospital.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Second Continental Congress Give me liberty or give me death were the famous words verbalize by Patrick Henry in the struggle for independence (Burnett 62). He addressed the first continental congress in 1774 and started the process of American political revolt. This revolt eventually climaxed in the rebelling of Britains American colonies and the establishment of what would become the United States of America. The Second Continental Congress accomplished independence through organization, rebellion, and finally declaring independence. This was the beginning of the American whirling. Britain established a series of acts to control the colonies and this became the main gravel of the revolution. These acts enabled Britain to increase the colonys taxes and pay for the costs of the seven years war. In addition, Britain angered the colonies by maintaining a large army in North America after peace was restored in 1773. The British also enforced a Stamp Act, which placed taxes on commercial and legal products. To further add to the frustration, the British controlled the shipping of goods and re-routed shipments to avoid going through London middlemen, who sold to independent merchants in the colonies. The final cause of the American Revolution was the addition of the Coercive Acts, which closed the port of Boston and cut back the local elections and town meetings. Thomas Paine summarized the colonys emotions towards the British and published a pamphlet, Common Sense. In this pamphlet he mocks Great Britain, a small island thousands of miles away, that controls a large country that should have independence. In September 1774, the first Continental Congress met in Philadelphia where they agreed upo... ...of Independence listed the tyrannical acts committed by George III, proclaiming the natural rights of man, and sovereignty of the American States. The Second Continental Congress was the backbone to the Revolution as well as being the key to freedom. It proved that, All men are created equal and possess the freedom of rights. Works Cited - Buckler, McKay H. The History of western sandwich Society. Boston Houghton Mifflin Company, 1995. - Burnett, Edmond C. The Continental Congress. New York The Macmillan Company, 1941. - Fiske, John. The American Revolution. New York Houghton Mifflin Company, 1891. - Schlesinger, Arthur M. The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution. New York Frederick Ungar Publishing Company, 1957. - Trevelyan, George O. The American Revolution. New York Longmans, Green and Company, 1928.
Second Continental coition Give me liberty or give me death were the known words spoken by Patrick Henry in the struggle for independence (Burnett 62). He addressed the first continental congress in 1774 and started the process of American political revolt. This revolt eventually climaxed in the rebelling of Britains American colonies and the establishment of what would become the United States of America. The Second Continental Congress accomplished independence through organization, rebellion, and at long last declaring independence. This was the beginning of the American Revolution. Britain established a series of acts to control the colonies and this became the main cause of the revolution. These acts enabled Britain to increase the colonys taxes and pay for the costs of the seven years war. In addition, Britain enkindle the colonies by maintaining a large army in North America after peace was restored in 1773. The British also enforced a notion Act, which pla ced taxes on commercial and legal products. To further add to the frustration, the British controlled the shipping of goods and re-routed shipments to avoid going through London middlemen, who sold to independent merchants in the colonies. The final cause of the American Revolution was the addition of the Coercive Acts, which closed the port of Boston and cut back the local elections and town meetings. Thomas Paine summarized the colonys emotions towards the British and published a pamphlet, Common Sense. In this pamphlet he mocks Great Britain, a small island thousands of miles away, that controls a large country that should have independence. In kinfolk 1774, the first Continental Congress met in Philadelphia where they agreed upo... ...of Independence listed the tyrannical acts committed by George III, proclaiming the natural rights of man, and sovereignty of the American States. The Second Continental Congress was the backbone to the Revolution as well as being the k ey to freedom. It proved that, All men are created equal and possess the freedom of rights. workings Cited - Buckler, McKay H. The History of Western Society. Boston Houghton Mifflin Company, 1995. - Burnett, Edmond C. The Continental Congress. New York The Macmillan Company, 1941. - Fiske, John. The American Revolution. New York Houghton Mifflin Company, 1891. - Schlesinger, Arthur M. The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution. New York Frederick Ungar Publishing Company, 1957. - Trevelyan, George O. The American Revolution. New York Longmans, Green and Company, 1928.
Monday, May 27, 2019
The movie Joy Luck Club depicted different characters of women from China who underwent difficulties in their lives. One char had to everlasting(a) the scorn of her family for being a concubine, another woman had to leave behind her twins under a tree during World War II because of an distemper and later when she died, her daughter met her older twin sisters, these women were made to commend that Chinese women should be meek and gentle, therefore, expecting their Ameri fuck born daughters to be the same. The daughters would retaliate most these expectations from their mothers.They cook asserted their own identities and stood up for what they wanted for themselves (Wang, 1989). Eric Eriksons stages of psychosocial development can be aptly applied to the Joy Luck Clubs heroines. They were sufficient to recover themselves and assert their individualities in the end. Eriksons psychosocial stage theory states that self-importance identity is the conscious sense of self that we dev elop through interaction with our environment and that our personality constantly changes as we go through our daily activities.We be exposed to new experiences that contribute to the development of our personalities. Each stage, according to Erikson, is concerned about competency in a particular area in life that if handled well, the individual will have a sense of expertise, which he termed as ego strength (Funder, 2010). I quote from Erikson, Ego identity, then, in its subjective aspect, is the awareness of the fact that there is a self-sameness and persistency to the egos synthesizing methods and a continuity of ones meaning for others (Funder, 2010).If this is managed poorly, the individual will feel inadequate. We experience conflict that becomes a turning point in development which is for his view, these are concentrate on either developing or failing that quality. During this stage of conflict, there is potential for growth but also for failure. For B. F. Skinner, operan t conditioning or instrumental conditioning is to associate behavior with a consequence pay off or punishment. In the movie, these theories of Skinner and Erikson were depicted by the mothers who give punishment or reward for certain behaviors manifested by their daughters.They were formed according to the cultures they were exposed to Chinese traditions upheld by their mothers and the American culture they grew up in. Here conditioning came by way of ethnic constraints. This explains the difficulties that the women underwent because they were also a product of their own culture. In the end, they were able to transcend cultural barriers and have developed their own personalities independent of their mothers. One can put that these girls have bloomed and acquired personalities after stages of conflict that resulted from a culture imbibed by their mothers and a culture they had to embrace.Another good theorist is Carl Rogers who is best known for a non-directive lift in the thera peutic process. He espouses Humanism in psychology, that believes that all deal are essentially good and healthy. According to him, In my early professional years, I was asking the question How can I treat, or cure, or change this person? Now I would phrase the question in this way How can I provide a relationship which this person may use for his own personal growth? All the women in the movie were all good, the woman who was judged by her family because of being a concubine, is essentially good.The mother who left her twins under a tree is essentially good. Often, we misjudge people for certain behaviors we think are improper or inappropriate. But if we examine the circumstances and we know all of the circumstances, we may be careful in judging other peoples behavior. Personally I have learned in my own life that there is such a things as hope and grace. No take what happens to you, life has a way of resolving things and healing emotional and psychological pains so that one can eventually move on celebrating life.In many ways, the culture of my family and society formed me through negative and positive reinforcements. At first I was afraid to assert myself and I would always conform to what society wants. Eriksons psychosocial development made me realize the challenges that I have to overcome through lifes challenges and passages. My own realization is that even if I had failed an earlier stage, lifes lessons always come back so that eventually I would know the truth and move on to a higher(prenominal) level.Carl Rogers assumption that man is basically good is refreshing as this has become a steady source of inspiration that no matter what I did or failed to do, I am basically a good person and that I will triumph in the end. I quote from Funder, Every man is in certain respects (a) like all other men, (b) like more or less other men, (c) like no other man. Funder has indicated that everyone is like everyone else, or similar with some, or similar with nobody. He is saying that all men and women are the same in their basic needs for food and shelter.We are all similar in our interests and other things in common, but we are also not similar any other men/women because of the traits that each of us possess, which is what we call personality. Our minds may be the same with other minds and are also unlike any other mind. The set-up of our brains have similar structures but our brains can also be similar some other brains in terms of some disorders, for example. Individuals who are depressed will have neurotransmitter concentrations that are different from those of non-depressed people. We have different abilities academically or athletically, and these activities are controlled by the brain.But abilities are different from everyone. He has stated that, Constructivism is widespread throughout modern intellectual life. This attitude, slightly simplified is that reality as a concrete entity does not exist. All that does exist is human i deas or constructions of reality. He has also stated, To some degree, the judgments of personality rendered of you by the people who know you not only when reflect what you are like, but can lead you to be what you are like. We have different mental construct of impressions of what we see around us.The concept of attractive may be different from someone else. Our realities like our view of the world are not a reality. These are interpretations of what we see around us that pass sense within our observations of our surroundings and of impressions by people about us. The reality of our personality was also created by the ones who know us which we sometimes affirm. But this is not necessarily the truth of our real personality. Works Cited Funder, D. C. (2010). The Personality Puzzle. New York W. W. Norton & Company. Wang, W. (Director). (1989). Joy Luck Club Motion Picture.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Why tutor Uniforms? take aim consistents be widely apply in public give instructions. Despite disagreements among p bents, students, and the naturalize districts, condition officials cite more reasons for students to fag out indoctrinate uniforms. Those reasons usu entirelyy include the following the uniforms ar cheaper for pargonnts, students recrudesceing the aforesaid(prenominal) garments decreases civilize fights, and students can receive a violate pedagogy in the secure environment uniforms creates. near students and p arents disagree because eating away uniforms is not benignant to them and does not every(prenominal)eviate traditional inform problems.It shamblings students depressed because they cannot express themselves, they are forced to look like others, and it grapples the fun out of teach. What re entirelyy happens when students are all dressed the same? Students creativity is hindered, and they are unable to show their individuality. Students sho uld be able to express themselves through their clothes and not be forced to wear uniforms. Clothes are an expression of a students personality. By suppressing their opportunity to show their unique personalities, tutors are teaching that uniformity is more precious than individuality. inculcate uniforms s stop over a clear early-life message to students that conformity is important and creativity is not (youdebate. com). Geeks, for fashion model, great power express themselves by wearing thick glasses, suspenders and capacious socks. On the other hand, outgoing students might wear vibrant color in and outlandish fashion. Then, there are shy children, who might choose to wear pertinacious clothing and mostly black. These are just a few examples of students ski binding according to certain categories with which they might determine themselves.The possibilities of individually expressing one self through clothes are infinite. However, uniforms stifle these possibilities the y keep students from expressing their personality. Uniforms too can cause an undo pecuniary burden. Parents hand over to buy uniforms for when students are in school and street clothes for when they are not. Angelfire. com secerns uniforms ultimately cost more. Students change into street clothes after school, and they wear them on weekends. During summer months, students volition revert to traditional street clothes.Additionally, students will take designer street clothes when not in school. Therefore, parents purchase dickens sets of clothing, and many families cannot afford this. It is cheaper for the parents to buy neverthe little regular street clothes. Despite claims uniforms are worth a little extra money to conk issues much(prenominal) as bullying and genial cliques, putting children in uniforms does not resolution social issues in school. It only treats the symptoms. Cliques will still form, and students will still make judgments on each other based on hair styl es, height, weight, and odor (www. angelfire. com).The only true way to resolve such(prenominal) problems is to teach gross profit margin and compass of diversity. Instead of forcing students to wear uniforms, educators should teach students how to respect and accept each other, despite their differences in body type, fashion, hair style, color, or any other thing that might otherwise divide the student body. This would bring an end to many social problems that excogitate in schools and also make students more productive members of society when they final stage school. While schools hail uniforms as making school safer, it could cause a sentry go problem in the event of a credentials breech.In an event of an emergency, it will be hard to identify a certain student because they will all be dressed the same. Randy from youdebate. com states the following I am tout ensemble against school uniforms One reason, of many, is safety of the students. For example During a natural disas ter (God Forbid) Earthquake, Tornado, etc, How would a parent i. d. their child? By the clothes that they are wearing, when they left home. What if a senior decided to attack a 9th or 10th grade student. How would the victim describe the attacker? Lets see, Khaki Pants- Navy macabre Shirt- Brown Shoes. You get the picture.This was, is and will ALWAYS BE A VERY unfavourable idea. No school can prevent 100 percent of security breeches. It is impossible to prevent all outside intrusion (angelfire. com). However, uniforms can make it easier for outsiders to memorialize a school campus. If an outsider is dressed in the traditional school uniform, teachers and administrators might everyplacelook them as a member of the student body. Uniforms are touted as a solution to security problems when they actually can add to the problem. Schools select no valid reasons to put students in uniforms, and commonly cited reasons for uniforms are invalid.While proponents of uniforms argue they re solve social problems, they can contribute to social problems in that they take remote students ability to express their individuality through clothing. Encouraging such conformity over individuality during school years is a mistake. Also, parents take up to shoulder the monetary burden of buying uniforms in addition to street clothes, which they will also have to purchase. School districts may tout uniforms as a safer alternative to students wearing street clothes, but the uniformity can make it easier for outsiders to infiltrate the school and also can cause confusion in the event of an emergency.School districts present an stunning argument for school uniforms, saying they can decrease bullying, save parents money and timbre up security. However, when the facts are considered, these arguments do not hold true. Preserving parents pocket books and students right to self expression by allowing them to wear street clothes to school and teaching tolerance are a much punter alter native to the conformity and disbursement of school uniforms.Works Cited School Uniform Debate and Poll. 7 Sept 2010. www. youdebate. com. WEB. Arguments about Uniforms. 7 Sept 2010. www. angelfire. com . WEB.School UniformsIs it better to let things continue in their fearful condition or change them for the better? The issue of school uniforms has been argued for decades with many divergent ideas and no final conclusion. However, school uniforms would reduce some major problems such as the school districts budget problem, school bullying, and gang-related rage. The addition of school uniforms would advantage the school of San Jacinto High School. Californias bad economy affects the school district and everyone in it.Hundreds of dollars are wasted, when parents and students buy school clothes, it would be better to buy more affordable school uniform. Many community come in deeply into debt because they overspend on clothes, but if school uniforms were made available, that problem would be eliminated. The uniforms could also be passed down from sibling to sibling if needed. Right now, the school is not even able to give teachers enough paper, it would benefit them to sell school uniforms to make some money.So why not just make school uniforms mandatory and save tons of money? Another problem that school uniforms would eliminate is bullying based on appearance. Every day someone is discriminated collect to what clothes they wear. Some people can afford to spend money on nice clothes and some cannot, but people should not be harassed for it. Everyone wearing the same clothes would promote equality, something that schools desperately need at the moment. With fashion out of the way students could better concentrate on their studies.While school uniforms may reduce individuality, in the long run it would benefit those on the receiving end of bullying. Perhaps the best outcomes school uniforms would create is that of gang violence. Gangs usually identify t hemselves and other gangs by what they wear. However, if everyone happened to be wearing the same thing, it would be harder for gang fights to take place. In 1994, Californias Long Beach Unified School District started requiring the use of school uniforms. In the following decade, gang violence and school crime in that area had dramatically reduced by 76%.To cap it all school attendance had even reached its highest point. More schools should follow their example and end school crime. The school district is now one step away from greatly improving school life for everyone. All in all school uniforms would greatly benefit the school district and everyone in it. parsimony money, stopping bullying, and getting rid of gang violence and inappropriate clothing are definitely things the school needs right now. So dont just stand there, make your voices heard and support school uniformsSchool UniformsSchool uniforms are one step that may help the cycle of violence, truancy and disorder by h elping young students understand what heartyly counts is what kind of people they are. This quote was made by former president Bill Clinton. In the article Should kids wear school uniforms? , talks about how school uniforms can benefit students and how some think school uniforms are irrelevant. There are many benefits of wearing school uniforms they change magnitude students self-esteem, improve discipline, and save families time and money.School uniforms can increase a students self-esteem, which veers attention upon learning and away from such distractions as fashion competition and gang intimidation. With a student having confidence of what they are wearing improves behavior and increases school attendance. It is also more economical and convenient way to avoid discrimination and teasing within the school for who dress better or worse. A child who is not able to use higher-quality clothing will not feel different or inferior to others. The uniform, as the detect says, unifyin g models and styles and can even encourage self-esteem and help everyone feel equal.Dress affects attitude and behavior. Children generally act the way they are dressed. Children with uniforms come to school to work. School is then seen as a workplace for teaching and learning. It is not seen as a battleground, playground, or fashion stage. On the other hand, some argue and say it violates the right to freedom of expression and does not create diversity. Uniforms restrict learners are that without the outlet of expression in their clothes, students may turn to inappropriate hair styles, jewelry, or makeup (Public School Uniforms).So by restricting students of their clothing choice, they will still find a way to show their personality in their hair, jewelry, and hairstyles. Although a uniform can get boring with the same clothes and same color every day, uniforms have proven to lower hostility in many schools. Uniforms have reduced tardiness, skipped classes, suspensions, and discipl ine referrals. According to the Public School Review, in the Long Beach school district within one year of launching uniforms, fights and muggings had gravely dwindled by fifty percent. While committed sexual offenses were massively diminished as well by a vast seventy-four percent.Uniforms reduce violence is that if an outsider were to enter a school, the intruder would be spotted immediately, as teachers and police would arrive to dispose of the stranger that might be a revile to the students. One may argue and say school uniforms merely put a Band-Aid on the problem of school violence and fail to address the real issues behind it. Also, it wont matter what you are wearing, people are still going to be judged and bullied. Most bullies believe they can have spot over a weaker, smaller, younger, and less confident person.Bullies will be there regardless of fashion. School uniforms are a bargain. They are becoming far less expensive than many other clothes. Schools argue that scho ol uniforms are economical, especially compared to designer clothing, and parents agree given school uniform durability. Some say school uniforms last longer because they are made for repeated wash and wear. Many schools capitalize on this by starting used school uniform stores or swap meets. Parents can get used school uniforms at discount prices, or just use them as hand-me-downs between siblings.Many will argue with this. Some will say that uniforms can cost more than regular, everyday clothing. Also, uniforms can be uncomfortable to wear outside of school. Meaning, parents have to buy separate clothes for outside of school. By having to buy two different wardrobes costs families more money and time. All in all, while children believe that the school is trying to ascendency their freedom of speech by enforcing uniforms, a school is not a fashion show. It is there to educate children and help them get into a college and a worthwhile future career.School UniformsWhy School Uniform s? School uniforms are widely used in public schools. Despite disagreements among parents, students, and the school districts, school officials cite many reasons for students to wear school uniforms. Those reasons usually include the following the uniforms are cheaper for parents, students wearing the same clothes decreases school fights, and students can receive a better education in the secure environment uniforms creates. Some students and parents disagree because wearing uniforms is not pleasing to them and does not alleviate traditional school problems.It makes students depressed because they cannot express themselves, they are forced to look like others, and it takes the fun out of school. What really happens when students are all dressed the same? Students creativity is hindered, and they are unable to show their individuality. Students should be able to express themselves through their clothes and not be forced to wear uniforms. Clothes are an expression of a students person ality. By suppressing their opportunity to show their unique personalities, schools are teaching that uniformity is more valuable than individuality. School uniforms send a clear early-life message to students that conformity is important and creativity is not (youdebate. com). Geeks, for example, might express themselves by wearing thick glasses, suspenders and long socks. On the other hand, outgoing students might wear vibrant colors and outlandish fashion. Then, there are shy children, who might choose to wear long clothing and mostly black. These are just a few examples of students dressing according to certain categories with which they might identify themselves.The possibilities of individually expressing oneself through clothes are infinite. However, uniforms stifle these possibilities they keep students from expressing their personality. Uniforms also can cause an undo financial burden. Parents have to buy uniforms for when students are in school and street clothes for when they are not. Angelfire. com says uniforms ultimately cost more. Students change into street clothes after school, and they wear them on weekends. During summer months, students will revert to traditional street clothes.Additionally, students will prefer designer street clothes when not in school. Therefore, parents purchase two sets of clothing, and many families cannot afford this. It is cheaper for the parents to buy only regular street clothes. Despite claims uniforms are worth a little extra money to eliminate issues such as bullying and social cliques, putting children in uniforms does not resolve social issues in school. It only treats the symptoms. Cliques will still form, and students will still make judgments on each other based on hair styles, height, weight, and odor (www. angelfire. com).The only true way to resolve such problems is to teach tolerance and appreciation of diversity. Instead of forcing students to wear uniforms, educators should teach students how to resp ect and accept each other, despite their differences in body type, fashion, hair style, color, or any other thing that might otherwise divide the student body. This would bring an end to many social problems that develop in schools and also make students more productive members of society when they finish school. While schools hail uniforms as making school safer, it could cause a safety problem in the event of a security breech.In an event of an emergency, it will be hard to identify a certain student because they will all be dressed the same. Randy from youdebate. com states the following I am totally against school uniforms One reason, of many, is safety of the students. For example During a natural disaster (God Forbid) Earthquake, Tornado, etc, How would a parent i. d. their child? By the clothes that they are wearing, when they left home. What if a senior decided to attack a 9th or 10th grade student. How would the victim describe the attacker? Lets see, Khaki Pants- Navy Blue Shirt- Brown Shoes. You get the picture.This was, is and will ALWAYS BE A VERY BAD idea. No school can prevent 100 percent of security breeches. It is impossible to prevent all outside intrusion (angelfire. com). However, uniforms can make it easier for outsiders to enter a school campus. If an outsider is dressed in the traditional school uniform, teachers and administrators might overlook them as a member of the student body. Uniforms are touted as a solution to security problems when they actually can add to the problem. Schools have no valid reasons to put students in uniforms, and commonly cited reasons for uniforms are invalid.While proponents of uniforms argue they resolve social problems, they can contribute to social problems in that they take away students ability to express their individuality through clothing. Encouraging such conformity over individuality during school years is a mistake. Also, parents have to shoulder the financial burden of buying uniforms in additi on to street clothes, which they will also have to purchase. School districts may tout uniforms as a safer alternative to students wearing street clothes, but the uniformity can make it easier for outsiders to infiltrate the school and also can cause confusion in the event of an emergency.School districts present an impressive argument for school uniforms, saying they can decrease bullying, save parents money and heighten security. However, when the facts are considered, these arguments do not hold true. Preserving parents pocket books and students right to self expression by allowing them to wear street clothes to school and teaching tolerance are a much better alternative to the conformity and expense of school uniforms.Works Cited School Uniform Debate and Poll. 7 Sept 2010. www. youdebate. com. WEB. Arguments about Uniforms. 7 Sept 2010. www. angelfire. com . WEB.School UniformsIs it better to let things continue in their horrible condition or change them for the better? The i ssue of school uniforms has been argued for decades with many different ideas and no final conclusion. However, school uniforms would reduce some major problems such as the school districts budget problem, school bullying, and gang-related violence. The addition of school uniforms would benefit the school of San Jacinto High School. Californias bad economy affects the school district and everyone in it.Hundreds of dollars are wasted, when parents and students buy school clothes, it would be better to buy more affordable school uniform. Many people fall deeply into debt because they overspend on clothes, but if school uniforms were made available, that problem would be eliminated. The uniforms could also be passed down from sibling to sibling if needed. Right now, the school is not even able to give teachers enough paper, it would benefit them to sell school uniforms to make some money.So why not just make school uniforms mandatory and save tons of money? Another problem that school uniforms would eliminate is bullying based on appearance. Every day someone is discriminated due to what clothes they wear. Some people can afford to spend money on nice clothes and some cannot, but people should not be harassed for it. Everyone wearing the same clothes would promote equality, something that schools desperately need at the moment. With fashion out of the way students could better concentrate on their studies.While school uniforms may reduce individuality, in the long run it would benefit those on the receiving end of bullying. Perhaps the best outcomes school uniforms would create is that of gang violence. Gangs usually identify themselves and other gangs by what they wear. However, if everyone happened to be wearing the same thing, it would be harder for gang fights to take place. In 1994, Californias Long Beach Unified School District started requiring the use of school uniforms. In the following decade, gang violence and school crime in that area had dramatically reduced by 76%.To cap it all school attendance had even reached its highest point. More schools should follow their example and end school crime. The school district is now one step away from greatly improving school life for everyone. All in all school uniforms would greatly benefit the school district and everyone in it. Saving money, stopping bullying, and getting rid of gang violence and inappropriate clothing are definitely things the school needs right now. So dont just stand there, make your voices heard and support school uniforms
Saturday, May 25, 2019
AbstractA good retreat intent should be one that would digest retirees with the most benefits. These benefits should ideally provide measure income advantages. revenue enhancement nest egg screwing be realized in the short run or in the eagle-eyed run depending on the type of scheme apportioned. It should likewise provide a secure investment that offers attractive returns. This paper looks into the seclusion programs highlighting the advantages of these schemes to different players. This paper opines that despite the few disadvantages of these schemes, They provide an great highroad through which employees quarter object their futur.DefinitionThese be a programs established by employer or employee or both(prenominal) aimed at providing the retirees with a source of income when they be no longsighteder in employment.Retirement plans basically ar set up as a form of savings plan to cater for the hereafter i.e. by providing some form of income when a person has retir ed.Types of retirement plansThere are several retirement plans avail qualified in the market today. The employees should therefore select a plan that meets their expectation and suits their needs.Below is a list and explanation of some of the available retirement plans.i) Individual Retirement Accounts plansIt is one of the simplest retirement programs that bottomland be set by an individual. It is also worthwhile to none that IRAs be established by employers.Therefore IRAs can be established with little employers social occasion to those that they establish and top to the scheme.The retirement benefits depend on the roles and subsequently the income earned by these funds.There are four IRA plansPayroll Deduction IRA- make by the employee either below traditional or Roth IRA in conjunction with a financial institution.The financial institution (banks, insurance companies) then deducts the contributions towards the plan under the authority of the employee.Traditional IRA contr ibutions are partly or wholly impose deductible and therefore present tax savings to the employee. The former(a) advantage is that the earnings on the plan are not taxed unless distributed. The said(prenominal) applies to the contributions to the plan.Roth IRA deductions are not tax deductible and also distributions are not part of the income (Internal Revenue Service 2008)Salary Reduction Simplified Employee Pension Plan (SARSEP) It is a simple plan that involves salary reduction agreement which enables the employers to contribute to the IRAs set by them and also to the employees IRAs. There contributions are subject to a limit.Simplified Employee Pension Plan (SEP)-Employers contribute towards the planSavings Incentive tote up Plan for Employees (SIMPLE IRA) employers make contributions towards their own retirement plan and also that of the employees.The employees reduce their salaries with the employers making similar contributions.ii) IRC 401 (K) Plans.Can involve employees delaying their salaries and these money is taken to 401(k) plan back up by their employers. The deferred salary is not taxed unless distributed.The benefit of having a 401(k) plan is that one can have other plans as wellThe employee/employer contribution is subject to a limit with withdrawals being permitted but subject to taxes.iii) TRC 403(b)- assess sheltered Annuity PlansThis plan are operated by public schools and certain tax exempt organizations.This plan is same as 401(k) in the sense that contributions are in form of salary delays with the employers sponsoring the plan.The potential benefits of this plan are that the contributions and earnings on retirement are tax deferred with annuities being carried by the employee on retirement or change of employers (IRS 2008)iv) IRC 457(b) Deferred Compensation PlansEstablished by state or local government or tax exempt organization under IRA (501(c). Employees or employers contribute to the plan through salary reductions up to a cer tain set limit under IRC 402(g)These plans can be eligible under IRC 457 (b) or illegible under IRC 457(f). Eligible plan allows tax deferral on contributions and earnings on the retirement funds (Ryterband &Alpem 2005)v) Designated Roth Accounts in 401(k) or 403(b) plans401(k) and 403(b) can be designated as Roth plans since 2006. These plans are allowed under Code section 402 A added by the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act 2001.Designated Roth contributions are included in the gross income and are also elective. A designated Roth account is where with contributions is made with separate accounting of contributions, gains and losses being maintained (IRS 2008)Designated Roth contributions are subject to limit with employee and employers contributing up to certain determinable limit.Advantages and Disadvantages of good retirement planAs discussed above, there are different types of retirement plans that employees and employers can chose from. The plan to be selecte d should provide the most benefits to both the employer and employee and most importantly suit the needs of both the employee and employers (Scotto, D., J et al 2008)Therefore, in discussing the advantages and disadvantages of retirement plans, it important to approach it from the employees and employers point view.Advantages-EmployeesTax saving-A good retirement plan should be able to provide the most tax savings and advantages. Tax advantages can be in the form of tax-exempt and tax deferrals.A good number of retirement plans offer these tax advantages and therefore employees and employers can select a plan that meets their needs (Maddock J, 2007)The tax savings can be realized in the short run or in the long run depending on the type of scheme selected.M whatever investment options and opportunities-The contributions (funding) to the retirement plan are invested in various investment options. A good retirement plan should therefore put the money in investments that offer attracti ve returns while at the same snip safeguarding the investors money.Retirement plans are long term in nature and therefore the contributions should be invested in the long term also (Perlinger Financial Services 2008)Provides a nest egg-Retirement plans provide employees with an opportunity to slowly but constantly contribute towards their retirement. The benefit of this arrangement is that it does not strain the employees financially and thus they are able to make contribution which they are comfortable with.All these contributions are invested in stocks, bonds and other investment opportunities which earn interest and appreciate in value and therefore the retirement benefits volition accumulate and become substantial upon retirement.Employer contributions-Contribution to the retirement benefits plan can be by an individual or by the company or both depending on the type of plan.A good retirement benefit plan should allow both contribution of employee and employer. The employer co ntributions are usually elective in nature.Contributions by both employer and employee ensure that the fund accumulates faster and thus on retirement the fund will be huge.Performance of the fund-The contributors to the retirement scheme should be able to monitor the realizeance of the fund. A good retirement benefits plan should provide regular updates on the performance of the fund so that any surplus or deficit can be appropriately dealt with.Advantages- EmployerEmployee retention-A good retirement plan can act as an incentive to the employees and also attract better employees. The company can retain its top employees by offering them a good retirement scheme and since it is for the long term, the company is able to retain them.The company is also able to attract employees who are better qualified in impairment of experience and skills and thus the company will benefit (Business Owners Toolkit 2008)Financial security of employees-Employees is able to perform optimally if they know that their financial future is guaranteed. A retirement benefit plan that provides this perceived financial security is good Employee morale-Since most pension schemes are based on the salary earned by the employee, a good retirement plan therefore, serves to motivate and encourage all employees to work hard and then earn more wages. Higher salaries subsequently means handsome retirement package and this enhances staff morale. Tax savings-The contributions to the retirement scheme in most plans is tax allowable and this provides the company with the most tax efficient way of rewarding its employees. The contributions are deducted when calculating the taxable income.Reduced recruitment costs-As seen above, a good retirement plan helps the company retain most of its employees and therefore the costs associated with recruitment and replacing the employees who left the company is minimized (Perlinger Financial Services2008) Disadvantages of retirement plans disrespect all the nu merous advantages of setting up a retirement plan, there are several disadvantages associated with it. Some of these are discussed below.Some of the retirement plans are time consuming, expensive and complex to set up. The result of this is that the company incurs extra expenses and thereby squeezing the profit margins. The complexities in establishing the plan will also present more costs apart from being time consuming (Business Owners Toolkit 2008)The operations of the retirement plan needs professional expertise e.g. that of actuaries and accountant. These professionals offer their services at a fee which is usually expensive. The administrative costs of running a retirement plan may pose a challenge to the company in terms of extra costs.Early retirement by the employee could reduce the amount received. This in essence means that the employee has to work his full employment term in enounce to receive all his retirement benefits. This could mean being trapped in employment even if one is not comfortable.Joining a retirement plan late on in ones employment i.e. when there are a few years till retirement may not accumulate a large amount enough to sustain the retiree. Therefore the retirement plan will not improve the financial security of the employee (Scotto, D., J et al 2008)In some of the retirement plans, the contributor has no role in deciding where to invest the funds money. This means that the money could be invested in assets that are not in line with ones investment strategies. This essentially means that the contributor has no control of his money.Employees are answerable for ensuring that they have enough savings for their retirement in some of the plans. This means that the employee is the one in charge of all the investment assets and therefore bears the responsibility of any losses incurred by these investments.ReferenceMaddock, J (2007) Advantages of Offering a Pension Plan to Your Employees Retrieved On29/1/2009Perlinger Financial Services Ltd (2008) Pension Plans Retrieved on 29/1/2008Internal Revenue Service (2008) Types of Retirement Plans Retrieved On 29/1/2008Business Owners Toolkit (2008) Pros and Cons of Retirement Plans Retrieved On 29/1/2008From http//www.toolkit.com/small_business_guide/sbg.aspx?nid=P05_4640Scotto, D., J. Maglio, V., T. & Maglio, M. (2008) Choosing a retirement plan that meets theneeds of employees and employer Retrieved on 29/1/2008 from Retrieved On Fromhttp//view.fdu.edu/default.aspx?id=2333Chang RuthenBerg and Long Pc (2003) Types of Retirement Plans retrieved on 29/1/2008 from http//www.seethebenefits.com/CRLframeset800x600.asp?targetPage=http//18.104.22.168/search?q= compileAO6rPS-WpS4Jwww.seethebenefits.com/content/CWHY/typesretireplans.htm%20types%20of%20retirement%20plansRyterand, D., J. & L. Alpem, R., L. (2005). The Hand Book of Employee Benefits DesignFunding and Administration, section 457, Deferred compensation plans 6th Edition (NY)Mc Graw-Hill Professional.
Friday, May 24, 2019
Gennesis Carrion Professor Fulton 350324 Chastity Over indexing sexuality Even until establish day, virginity is held in high esteem and considered a virtue, something sacred and worthy of praise. Being a virgin is a symbol of innocence, highly valued by religions and advance by them to remain so it is something that only the bond of marriage is a worthy reason for its loss. Virginity is a symbol of purity, the intactness and immaculacy of the body and soul. It represents the body has remained untouched by sexual acts and the soul has remained untainted by sexual urges both remain unmarked by acts of foreign mind and touch.Virginity is the prominent theme of Miltons fiddling playA Masque Presented at Ludlow Castle Comus. In mentioned play, Milton confines sexuality to exist only with accordance to the sanctity of a womans righteousness. He uses mythical allusions to support the sacredness of chastity and utilizes the character of Comus as a symbol of the malevolent factors at w ork tempting virginity to be abandoned for a more good-looking sexuality whereas the character of the Lady is the personification of chastity.Before beginning the play, the textbooks publisher provides some short background information in the preface. In such background, one learns Miltons use of allegory between the characters in Masque with the Earl of Bridgewater and his family (the Egertons). The preface also states Masques elevated conception of chastity was meant to dissociate the Egerton family from scandal, such scandal world the Second Earl of Castle move inns (the brother-in-law of Bridgewaters married woman) indiscretions against his wife and female servants.This information provides readers a possible reason for Miltons upstanding concern with chastity in Masque. Another possible reason could have been a commissioned purpose to aid the Earl of Bridgewater, and newly appointed Lord hot seat of the Council of Wales, to establish a credible and respectable impression and reputation. Milton accomplished this with basing the characters of Masque off of the Earls children with his deuce sons being the brothers in the play and with his daughter being the Lady, the cherished virgin of the play, although this basis was never clearly tated thereby remaining allegorical. When readers first encounter the Lady, she has become separated from her brothers and is lost wandering through the woods. She calls push through welcoming pure-eyed Faith, white-handed Hopeand the unblemished form of Chastity to protect her through her excursion. Her choice of aid represents her regard for chastity she places it in alliance with hope and faith, two aspects connected to religion and of high importance. Not only does the Lady place superior significance on chastity, but she herself is the personification of it.Readers can truly traverse Miltons perspective towards chastity specifically in the passage spoken by the Elder Brother (lines 420-475). Within this passage, th e Elder Brother speaks of the honor and military unit that comes with a woman being upright he is referring to his sister, She that has that, is clad in complete steel no savage fierce, bandit, or mountaineer will boldness to soil her virgin purity. The Lady is chaste, furthermore she is chastity, she has the protection which being so provides.Forms of evil will avoid her for that is to how far of an extreme virginity is held, that not til now evil would take the risk of violating a womans purity. The Lady is free to roam the forest and pass on with unblenched majesty. She does not have to fret or fear any that may cross her path for none hath hurtful power oer true virginity. Virginity, chastity, purity be the ultimate powers, the ultimate protection for a woman against harm to her body and her soul.Continuing with the passage of the Elder Brother, he also goes on to elaborate on what occurs when chastity is lost. He refers to the physical act of a woman losing her virginity ( having sex) as letting in the defilement to the inward parts. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, defile mode to bruise or maul and defilement as the act of being defiled thereof the act of being bruised or mauled the use of this word to take up sex gives it an animalistic twist, a savage perspective.This causes sex to be viewed as an act too undignified and somewhat immoral to be committed by humans. Even religiously, sex is only meant for the purpose of procreating life, not as a means of pleasure. The Lady, being the personification of chastity, upholds all that is pure and denounces the vile obscenities caused by cock-a-hoop sexuality that which is not good, is not delicious to a well-governed and wise appetite. Her logic being that to those who have faith and cherish chastity would not fall to evil temptation and sexual urges.Those aforementioned evil temptations and sexual urges are what the character of Comus symbolizes. Instantly when Comus learns the existence o f the Lady, once he hears her song, he is automatically raddled to her. Comus claims to have never heard such sober certainty of waking bliss the voice he has heard is that of the Lady therefore bring the sound of true purity. Comus is instinctively attracted to the Lady and proclaims she shall be his queen. This attraction is an instinct, same as good versus evil or ying and yang it is a balance of positive and disconfirming forces.With the Lady being chastity in corporeal form and Comus being the personification of temptation, it is no surprise for Comus to desire to conquer the Lady and make her his wife thereby taking away her virginity. No longer being chaste, the Lady would then belong to him symbolizing purity falling for temptation. Comus attempts to entice the Lady by urging her to be not coy, and be not cozened with that same vaunted name Virginity/ Beauty is Natures coin, must not be hoarded/ But must be current, and the good thereof/ Consists in mutual and partaken b liss.Comus refers to virginity as vaunted, meaning it is a trait only desired for bragging of its possession he does not hold it in high esteem such as the Lady whom places it next to hope and faith Comus places it next to vanity, which is a deadly sin, therefore supporting his purpose of symbolizing evil and temptation. Milton utilizes various allusions to fab accounts to support his extreme importance placed on chastity. He even states, Do ye count me yet, or shall I call/ Antiquity from the old schools of Greece to testify the arms of Chastity? . An example of such is when the Lady had been found captured and the Attendant Spirit called upon the Sabrina, Goddess of the river, for supporter to release the Lady from her entrapment. Sabrina fell victim to the jealousy of her stepmother and was thrown into the river however since she was a virgin pure, the sea god Nereus took pity upon her and ordered her quick immortal change into a river goddess while still maintaining her maid en gentleness.This allusion provides evidence of the power of virginity due to Sabrina being chaste was she rewarded with immortality and an opportunity to remain in the mortal realm and utilize her newly-appointed power to aid those maidens in peril. Also, Sabrina retained her maiden gentleness meaning, although she is no longer considered a virgin for she is an immortal, she remains chaste she remains untouched and pure and un-defiled as Milton would suggest. Sabrinas purpose is to help ensnared Chastity, a reference towards the Lady, and therefore liberates the Lady with the touch of her chaste palms.Milton assures he refers to Sabrinas palms as chaste continuing with his constant and repetitive emphasis on the virtue of chastity. Whether the reason for Miltons strong concern with chastity in Masque was a commissioned service or to convey personal views, the emphasis of chastity is still the main topic of this short play. With the use of allusions to mythological historical accou nts and personification, Milton emphasizes the sacredness of virginity and the power it holds.In Masque, Milton creates a world in which chastity makes a woman close to, if not completely, invincible. She may roam through dangerous settings with no fear for evil itself is not courageous enough to dare place chastity at risk she has the protection of Gods and Goddesses at her disposal if help is needed if death were to occur, she has the chance of becoming rewarded with immortality or automatically be held in praise for having remained a virgin through life.Same as chastity is acclaimed, sexuality is denounced. Sexuality is made to appear animalistic, savage, vile, a complete dishonor. A woman who gives in into her sexual curiosity is doomed in life and considered a sinner in the next. She loses the virtues associated with chastity and becomes a victim of her own unwise decision to not hold virginity as sacred therefore constituting chastity as the dominating power sexuality must su ccumb to.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
ASSIGMNET 1 Research on student difficulties in Understanding Chemical reactions Mis purposeions on Strength of Acids and Bases Mariyam Zaina, 015482 TITLE & INTRODUCTION Title Mis excogitationions on Strength of Acids and Bases Researches shows that students often develops new theories more than or less how the natural world works, prior to formal science pedagogy and frequently those theories atomic number 18 different to those of scientists(Demircioglu et al. , 2005).Students develop those scientific conceptions from many sources such as personal experiences (eg observations), gender, peer interaction, media, language, symbolic representations, textbooks etc In addition, sometimes teachers in like manner aid as major sources for option conceptions (Chiu, 2005) and such self-constructed conceptions atomic number 18 think ofred as misconceptions. Misconceptions are ideas which are non in agreement with accepted scientific ideas (Demircioglu et al. 2005). If students get hold of misconceptions they are then likely to reject the scientists viewpoints, olibanum it would be genuinely important for teachers to find about the misconceptions about the concepts to be taught (Khurshid & Iqbal, 2009) It is known that secondary schools students raise chemistry as one of the more or less difficult subjects and thus many students do difficulty in taste the well-nigh prefatorial concepts in the subject.Researches shows that students pay back lot of topic in chemistry with misconceptions and one such examined topic includes tarts and bases (Demircioglu et al. , 2005). Many studies show that students bedevil a lot of complexity in understanding the right concepts in blisterings and bases. Some of them include that students often fail to give examples of tender supermans and bases and also claims that pH is the tool more measuring bitterity. And students often refer corrosives as chemicals hat are corrosive or chemicals that eat away everythi ng. what is more students think that the more heat content ions present in a chemical the strength of its stingingity increase. And such misconceptions invent the topic acids and bases more abstract, boring and difficult to understand (Halim et al. , 2010). This research is conducted to clarify students such misconceptions or alternative theories on the concept Strength of acids and Bases under the topic Acids and Bases.The misconceptions taken into consideration are * Substances containing H are acidic and substances containing OH are basic * A unattackable acid doesnt dissociate in water tooth root, because its intra-molecular coheres are very strong * Concentrated acids are dangerous but toilsome bases are non * As the entertain of pH increases, acidity increases * As the number of hydrogen atoms increases in the saying of an acid, its acidity becomes stronger * All acids thin and melt everything * All acids and bases are evil and poisonous * Alkalis are strong bases * Strength and concentration mean the alike(p) thing The strongest acid is the most toilsome acid (Demircioglu et al. , 2005). Some important diagnose term apply in this research include misconceptions (defined in the first paragraph), Strong acid, tender acid, dilute acid, concentrated acid, This is a topic usually broken in by students and most of the time they accidently confuse the specific terms such as strong acid with contracted acid or corrosive acid. In fact it means incomplete of those things. A strong acid is an acid which is fully ionized in solution and a faint-hearted acid is an acid which partially dissociates in solution.Similarly a strong base is base which ionizes fully in solution and weak bases get partially ionized in solution (Strong and unclouded Acids and Bases, n. d). Concentrated acid has a relatively large amount of solute dissolved in the solvent. A dilute acid has a relatively small amount of solute dissolved in the solvent (Acid Strength, n. d) In this research it is assumed that all the students who participated in the survey are students who studied chemistry and thus would be thorough with the topic acids and bases. And also the students have telled all the uestions individually without any help or guidance and have minded(p) honest answers according to their levels of understanding. Furthermore it is assumed that students would be able to draw the molecular representation of the dissociations of ions in water by showing the molecules or ions present. The Rationale From various researchers done on students understanding of the topic acids and bases it is found that lot of secondary schools students have very different ideas or misconceptions on the concept strong and weak acids and bases.In a lot of situations students often describe strong and weak as being synonymous with concentrated and dilute. And most of the time these misconceptions arise because teachers are not aware of students prior or existing knowled ge about a concept or do not address to such alternative theories they have about the concept. Which lead to students into more confusion and let them go ahead with their wrong concept. So the purpose of this investigation was to find students misconceptions on the concept of strong and weak acids and bases via a interrogatorynaire.Furthermore the purpose of the research is to find the students misconceptions on the concept acids and bases in Maldivian schools and thus find ways to implement lesson which could address their misconceptions as future teachers. Procedure Research was conducted employ a probing tool to find students misconceptions. And the tool used was a straitsnaire with multiple choices, fill in the blanks using the best word from the words give and a question where students have to draw and show their ideas on the concept. The questionnaire was given to grade 25 students of grade 9 from Dharumavantha School.Students were chosen randomly from five classes of 9. Fr om each class 5 students were just chosen randomly and asked to fill the questionnaire (Refer appendix for all the questionnaire students have filled). After that the forms were store and the data was analyzed and percentage of the students choices were found and presented in the result sections RESULT scruple 1 Misconception Substances containing H are acidic and substances containing OH are basic externalize 1 Percentage of students choices for the question number one. accord to 62. 5% students A is the best choice.And no students have chosen D as the answer Question 2 Misconception Concentrated acids are dangerous but concentrated bases are not Figure 2 Percentage of students choices for the Question number 2. 52% students have chosen A as the answer while the rest of the students think the coiffe answer is D Questions 3- Misconception as the number of hydrogen atoms increases in the formula of an acid, its acidity becomes stronger Figure 2 Percentage of students choices f or the Question number 3 according to highest percentage of students choice B which is phosphoric acid is the strongest acidQuestion 4 Misconception Alkalis are strong Bases Figure 2 Percentage of students choices for the Question number 4 the highest percentages of students have chosen A as the answer. But there isnt a huge difference between students choices Question 5 all the acids and alkalis are harmful and poisonous Figure 2 Percentage of students choices for the Question number 5 it shows that for this question different student had different views. And most of the students with 36% chosed A as the answer Question 6 Misconception All the acids exit eat and burn everything awayFigure 2 Percentage of students choices for the Question number 6 According to 84% students not all acids will burn and eat everything away. still some acids will burn and eat everything away. Question 7 Misconception Strength and Concentration means the same thing Figure 2 Percentage of students c hoices for the Question number 7 Result shows that most of the students do not have this misconception only about 24% students have the misconception while 76% are well aware of the concept strength and concentrated Question 8- Misconception as pH increases acidity also increases.Figure 2 Percentage of students choices for the Question number 8 Almost all the students were get about this concept that as pH increases acidity decreases Questions 9 Misconception A strong acid doesnt dissociate in water solution, because its intra-molecular bonds are very strong. Figure 2 Percentage of students choices for the Question number 9 44% students were able to draw and show the microscopic dissociation of ions in strong and weak acids with all criterions present. And 8% students drew with some criteria wanting.And the rest of the 48% students had misconceptions about the dissociation of strong and weak acids in water Question 10 Misconception the strongest acid is the most concentrated aci d Figure 2 Percentage of students choices for the Question number 9 it shows that most of the students is quite clear with this misconception. just 36% students facilitate have the misconception that the strongest acid is the most concentrated acid DISCUSSION The first misconception dealt in the research was one of the very basic concepts under acids and bases.That is the definition for an acid and a base. A common misconception is that acids are chemicals with hydrogen (H) in the chemical formula and bases are chemicals with OH in the formula. 62. 5% students think that C2H5OH is basic as it has OH in its formula. 4. 2% students think C6H12O6 is both acidic and basic as it has both H and OH in its formula. While the rest of the 33. 3% gave the correct answer which is C6H12O6 and C2H5OH is neither acidic nor basic even though they have H and OH in the formula.But the result also shows that all the students are aware that ammonia is not an acid even if it has H in its formula. Aci d is a substance that gives H+ ions when dissolved in water. Acids are compounds that contain hydrogen, however there are compounds that contains hydrogen in their formulas but does not act as acids for an example water, H2O, ammonia NH3. A base in definition is that substance which gives OH- ions when dissolved in water. and then they are not substance with OH present.There are many substances that contain OH and H, yet does not act as acids or bases (Acids, Bases and Salts, 2005). For an example Sucrose, C6H12O6, contains H and OH, however, when dissolved in water it dissolves as intact molecules and does not ionize to produce any H+ or OH- ions, as shown by the equation C6H12O6(s) + H2O(l) C6H12O6(aq). Since sugar molecules do not lose any H+ or OH- ions, sugar is not considered an acid. Alcohols (C2H5OH) have a characteristic hydroxyl group, OH, covalently bonded to the rest of the molecule.When alcohols dissolve in water they also dissolve molecularly and do not ionize. Since no OH- ions are released, alcohols are not bases (Concept or Skills Development, n. d). However from the research it shows that students are not very clear about this idea and because of that most of the students have chosen A as the answer. A students misconception is that only concentrated acids are dangerous while concentrated bases are not. This misconception also was proven from question 2, as 52% students have chosen concentrated HCl only as most dangerous.Yet, the result also dialog to two sides because almost half of the students have chosen the correct choice (D) which says that both concentrated acid and base is dangerous. Choice A was a misconception. Weak acids and weak bases are not dangerous, but both strong acids and strong bases flush toilet both be harmful to human tissue. For an example lime is very strong base and that is the reason why a very small amount of lime is present in concrete and mortar. And construction workers have to be very careful not to get it o n their skins (Strong and Weak Acids and Bases).Another misconception was that as number of hydrogen in the chemical formula increases the strength of acid increases. According to 65% students this is true and thus they have chosen H3PO4 as the strongest acid and almost all the students have given the reason for their choice as having the most number of hydrogen in the formula. 31% students have chosen the correct answer which is sulfuric acid which is the strongest out of the three and have given the correct reason as, it could fully ionize in solution. Only 3% students have chosen nitric acid as the strongest acid.According to students the more hydrogen present it can contribute to more H+ to the solution, thus it would become stronger. The strength of an acid is determined by its ionization power which determined by the pKa value. The lower the pKa value the stronger the acid. Thus H2SO4 is the strongest ith pKa = -3. 1 followed by nitric acid (pKa= -1. 3) and phosphoric acid (pK a = 2. 12) (William, n. d) The reason for this misconception might be because students have not learnt the pKa values and not foregone into such details which would help to explain why an acid is becoming stronger.To clarify the misconception could give the pKa values as an extra information for the students or could make the students clearer on the concept that the strength depends on the amount of dissociation. Fourth question is about the misconception that alkalis are strong bases. Some students have the misconception that as alkalis is basic substances that dissolves in water they are strong bases. And from the survey it shows that 24% students do have this misconception.But it shows that apart from this misconception, most (36%) students have another(prenominal) wrong concept that alkalis and bases are same. 28% students do know the right answer from the choices given. Results of 5th question show that just 24% of students had the misconception that all the acids and alkalis were harmful and poisonous. Majority of students (36%) think that only concentrated HCl and concentrated NaOH will be harmful and poisonous, which was the correct choice out of the acids and bases is given.Dilute ethanoic acid would not be harmful as it would be used in many of the foods items as well. withal would not be dilute ammonia. Thus the result coveys the message that majority of students are clear about the above misconception. Yet there are few students with different views so as teachers need to show students the differences by showing examples as such. Sometimes students are not aware of the idea that they eat and drink acids, so if they know better acids such as citric acids, acetic acids would e able to clear this misconception Sixth, seventh and eight questions it shows that majority students do not have the misconception identified. Sixth question 84% students know the correct answers for the blank which is some acids would burn and eat everything away. Seventh qu estion was check whether students actually knows the difference between concentrated and strong acids. It was an application question and 76% students have given the right answer which is concentrated. Only 24% students had the misconception that concentrated and strong means the same.The students might have given the correct answer because two concentrations were given. For those who have given the correct answer whether they really know the difference, a different type of question with the same misconception was given (question 10). The correct answer for the 10th question was C which shows the full dissociated acid and thus it would be the strongest. 64% students have chosen this as the answer. Which shows some students knows that strong acids are those which dissociate fully.However majority of students from that 64% has given the reason for their answers wrong. According to them C is correct because it contains the most number of molecules. So that means students do have the m isconception about the strong and concentrated acids. Also 36% students chose D as the answer and most of their reason was that it has no water. This shows that their think strongest acid is the acid with least water present or otherwise the most concentrated acid. Eighth question none of the students had the misconception that as pH increases acidity increases.Some students might think as pH is the measure concentration of H+ ions as the pH increases the number H+ ions might increase thus would increase the acidity. Yet, all the students gave the correct answer for this question. For the 9th question a variety of answers were given. The misconception check was the stronger the acid the lower the dissociation because the inter-molecular bond would be stronger and weak acids would dissociate more. For this question it was checked whether the students had the following criterias.In weak acid shown the H-F not dissociated and very few H+ and F_ ions dissociated and in strong acid H-Cl fully dissociated into H+ and Cl- ions. And even if students have shown the water molecules or not shown it is correct. 44% students did draw the diagrams correctly with all the criteria given and have given the reasons as strong acid dissociate fully while weak acids would do partially. 8% students drew almost correct dissociations, but they most of them have not shown the ionic forms. (Refer appendix for students answers). And majority of students had misconceptions.Most of these students have shown more number of molecules in the strong acid side while less molecules in the weak side. Students have the concept that strong acids have more molecules and weak acid would have less. Only one student has given the reason as the stronger acid would have stronger bonds so dissociation would be lesser. Thus it can be concluded that majority does not have that misconception but they do have another misconception which is mostly mentiond to now knowing the actual meaning of strong and weak acids and also confusing it with concentrate and dilute.Considering the misconceptions it is important as teachers to take actions to withdraw such misconceptions. Firstly the students should be given instructions which foster conceptual understanding rather than rote memorization. Students are just given definitions of acids bases and they have memorized it, does not get any understanding as to how an acid becomes stronger weaker, concentrated or diluted (Yezdan, 2009). For an example students show the difference in this four by comparability the pH of the four types of acids concentrated, dilute, weak and strong.In the class the students could be given intelligence with teacher or peers to reflect on what they learnt and thus come up with the conceptions they have and thus the teacher can help in correcting them (Yezdan, 2009) Students misunderstanding arises generally from their experience s in everyday life and such experiences could be used to even eliminate the misconceptio ns. For an examples from early child hood onwards by watching cartoons and all students think that an acid is something which will make a slew where ever put and it is always dangerous.But could brainstorm students understanding about the weak acids present in the materials that are used in day today lives and relate it to weak acids being harmless. Also demonstrating student the difference between a strong acid and concentrated acid rather than just giving definitions ((Demircioglu et al. , 2005). Also could establish analogical thinking between real life examples and the unknown while learning new information could discard misconceptions. For example, teacher asks to the students if there is a relationship between the number of hydrogen atoms that the acid contains and acidic strength.After taking students responses and guiding the discussions till getting the true answer go one gait further and asks Is H3P04 stronger than HCl? . Then allows students to discuss again and reach t he answer. In order to establish an analogical thinking with real life situations can ask how do we measure the strength of the bulbs that we use at our homes? and guide the discussions until students reach the fact that If a bulb gives off a lot of light it is strong, a diminutive Light it is weak and then helps students to establish the analogy of if an acid ionizes a lot, it is strong ionizes a little, it is weak like in the case of bulbs.Similarly, provide students to watch that only one bulb sometimes may give more light/ may be more powerful than the two or more bulbs like in the case of the acidic strength and the number of hydrogen atoms that an acid contain i. e. HCl is stronger acid than the H3P04 because it gives more hydrogen ions than H3P04 when dissociates in water although it contains smaller number of hydrogen atom. Some limitations of this research include that the research is based only onto answer of 25 students which is a very small sample coat to know the ex tent of overall students understanding.Also the sample is from one school, even the students understanding may differ in schools because of the differences in methodologies used in teaching same concept. Also even though it was assumed that students have given honest answers without help from anyone some students answers were very similar which should be because of copying or discussion so the authenticity is not very effective, need to make sure students do it individually. ConclusionsThe purpose of the research was to find whether the misconceptions stated in the introductions were there in the students and to check the extent of students understanding on the concept strength of acids and bases. According to the results majority of students have a deeper understanding of the topic and does not have the most of the misconceptions stated. However some concepts such as concentration is same as strength, as number of Hydrogen increases the acidity increase and substances with H in the formula is acidic and OH is basic.These three misconceptions were found in majority of students and thus need to be dealt as they are one of the very basic and important concepts. And since chemistry as the topics are very much interrelated if the misconception persists it can lead into further misconceptions. So during teaching need to give more attention of those areas and try to use methods such as analogical thinking, demonstrations, applications questions which would help to clarify their misconceptions. Furthermore need to check students prior knowledge before spill into the new concepts as it would be the foundation for the new knowledge.REFERENCES Acids, Bases and Salts. (2005). Retrieved on August 17, 2011 from http//www. krysstal. com/acidbase. html Acid Strength. (n. d). Retrieved on August 17, 2011 from http//media. rsc. org/Misconceptions/Miscon%20acid%20strength. pdf Chiu. ,M. H. (2005). National Survey of Students Conceptions in chemistry in Taiwan. Retrieved on Aug ust 17, 2011 from http//old. iupac. org/publications/cei/vol6/07_Chiu. pdf Concept or Skills Development. (n. d). Retrieved on August 17, 2011 from http//www. okstate. edu/jgelder/acidPage25. htmlDemircioglu. G. , Ayas. A and Demircioglu. H. (2005). Conceptual change achieved through a new teaching design on acids and bases. Retrieved on August 17, 2011 from http//www. rsc. org/images/p3_Demircioglu_tcm18-31135. pdf Khurshid. , M and Iqbal. , M. Z. (2009). Childrens Misconceptions about Units on Changes, Acids and Laboratory Preparation of CO2. Retrieved on August 17, 2011 from http//pu. edu. pk/images/journal/ier/PDF-FILES/4-Childrens%20Misconceptions. pdf Halim. , N. D. A. , Ali. , M. B. , Yahaya. , N and Junaidi. , J. (2010).Learning acids and Bases through query Bases Website. Retrieved on August 17, 2011 from http//teknologimalaysia. academia. edu/noordayana/Papers/393231/Learning_Acids_and_Bases_Through_Inquiry_Based_Website Strong and Weak Acids and Bases. (n. d). Retrieved on August 17, 2011 from http//www. sky-web. pwp. blueyonder. co. uk/Science/strongacids. htm William. , R. (n. d). pKa Data. Retrieved on August 17, 2011 from http//research. chem. psu. edu/brpgroup/pKa_compilation. pdf APPENDIX Raw data of the survey conducted headway 1 drumhead 6Choice No. of students % Choice No. of students % A 15 62. 5 Some 21 84. 0 B 1 4. 2 All 4 16. 0 C 8 33. 3 25 D 0 0 24 QUESTION 2 QUESTION 7 Choice No. of students % Choice No. of students % A 13 52. 0 Concentrated 19 76. 0 B 0 0. 0 stronger 6 24. 0 C 0 0. 0 TOTAL 25 100. 0 D 12 48 TOTAL 25 100. 0 QUESTION 3 QUESTION 8 Choice No. of students % Choice No. of students % A 7 30. Increase 25 100. 0 B 15 65. 2 hang 0 0. 0 C 1 4. 3 TOTAL 25 100. 0 TOTAL 23 100. 0 QUESTION 4 QUESTION 9 Choice No. of students % Choice No. of students % A 2 8. 0 shown all the criteas 11 44. 0 B 19 76. 0 Some criteria missing 2 8. 0 C 2 8. 0 misinterpreta tion of the concept 12 48. 0 D 2 8 TOTAL 25 100. 0 TOTAL 25 100. 0 QUESTION 5 QUESTION 10 Choice No. of students % Choice No. of students % A 9 36. 0 A 0 0. 0
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
The Acquisition of ABM AMNRO by RBS Introduction Mergers & Acquisition have become very popular throughout the world in the upstart times. This has become popular due to globalization, liberalization, technological developments & intensely competitive affair environment. Mergers and science are a big part of corporate finance world. This motion is extensively workoutd for restructuring the business organization. In India, the concept of unitings and acquisition was initiated by the government bodies.The Indian economic re course of action since 1991 has opened up a full lot of challenges both in the domestic and international spheres. The increased competition in the global market has prompted the Indian companies to go for coalitions and acquisitions as an important strategical choice. The trends of mergers and acquisitions in India have changed over the years. The immediate effects of the mergers and acquisitions have in like manner been diverse across the various sectors of the Indian economy. Acquisition Acquisition in oecumenical sense is acquiring the ownership in the property.In the context of business combinations, an acquisition is the purchase by one association of a controlling liaison in the allocate capital of another existing company. An acquisition may be affected by (a) agreement with the persons holding majority interest in the company management like members of the board or major shareholders commanding majority of voting power (b) purchase of shares in open market (c) to addle takeover offer to the general body of shareholders (d) purchase of clean shares by private treaty (e) acquisition of share capital or one company may be either all or any one of the following form of considerations viz. eans of cash, issuance of loan capital, or insurance of share capital. History On October 10,2007 Royal depone of Scotland led consortium with RBs, Fortis of Belgium and banco Santander central Hispano SA of Spain created history by acqu iring Dutch banking gaintABN AMBRO for US$ 100 billion. The consortium paying(a) US$ 51. 55 per share of ABM AMBRO, about 13% more as compared to the rival Barclays offer. This was one of the largest acquisition in the history of global banking attention . The consortium agreed to pay 93% of amount through cash and remaining 7% through RBS shares.Due to the 2008 financial crisis, the Dutch government nationalised the divisions owned by Fortis, while the UK government is now in effective control over the divisions allocated to RBS due to its financial bail-out of the Scottish bank. The process of integrating some of ABN AMROs divisions into the new owners, and divesting others, continues. Since 6 February 2010 the bank has been split into one organisation owned by the Dutch government called ABN AMRO Bank N. V. and another owned by The Royal Bank of Scotland Group renamed The Royal Bank of Scotland N. V.On this date the Dutch owned businesses legally demerged from those owned by R BS. The Dutch government own the ABN AMRO brand for use with the parts of the bank they purchased while other companies within the Group lead be renamed or closed down. Objective To study the acquisition of ABN AMBRO by RBS form various perspectives. We will try to answer the following questions- What would a SWOT analysis reveal? What were the various synergies? Was the acquisition strategy sound? Events after acquisition? Various parameters of the deal. Effect of recession on the deal. Major challenges faced by the firm.On 19 January, 2009 RBS issued a statement in which it admitted that acquiring ABN AMBRO was a mistake. It also issued in the statement that ? 10 billion that it had spent on ABN ABMRO was worth nothing by then. Also RBS incurred a loss of ? 24. 1 billion on a total income of ? 26. 9 billion. So in this report we will try to study and learn the after-effects of acquisition. Various other similar factors are act to be studies. Data & Research Methodology Data wil l be mainly sourced from secondary sources. However the management of certain firms under view will be interviewed through structured questionnaires.The data will be analysed using financial tools to access the effectiveness of the deal. An attempt will be made to label the efficiency of the merged firm with the help of selected financial ratios. Analysis and expected results Through the medium of this report an attempt will be made to analyse the financial benefits of the acquisition. In addition to strategic benefits, the acquisition would deliver significant financial benefits to the shareholders. Through major cost savings and improved profitability of business lines, substantial earnings improvements for shareholders will be realised.The expectations from the deal were to strengthen all three consortium banks in their respective markets and open up new ingredient to accelerate their growth. The analysis includes- Impact of mergers & acquisition on employees and working condit ions Looking at the financing of the acquisition and studying the possible financing options. Major challenges of the merger and the opportunities. RBSs current expansion plans Sensitivity analysis Synergy analysis Accounting and financing structure Risk assessment and cost of capital Leveraged buy-out Estimating merger gains and costOf course, it is easy to criticize another firms management but not so easy to improve it. Some of the self-appointed scourges of sad management turn out to be less competent than those they replace. Here is how Warren Buffet, the chairman of Berkshire Hathaway summarizes the matter Many managers were apparently over-exposed in impressionable childhood years to the story in which the imprisoned, handsome prince is released from the toads body by a coddle from the beautiful princess. Consequently, they are certain that the managerial kiss will do wonders for the profitability of the target company. Such optimism is essential.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Utilitarianism is the ethical possible action that shows the reasons for a person choosing to bring out an action it justifies an action being for the greater good. Utilitarianism is a teleological possible action which means it looks at the consequences or result of an action to decide whether it is subsequently right or wrong this also makes it a consequentialist theory. The theory of Utilitarianism began with Jeremy Bentham.Benthams theory of Utilitarianism is where actions atomic number 18 judged ground upon the sport gained in the result. Jeremy Bentham was the man who originally thought of and came up with the idea of Utilitarianism, he believed in the greatest good for the greatest deed. on that point ar two types of Utilitarianism Benthams theory is Act Utilitarianism. Act Utilitarianism is about creating the greatest do of entertainment in a particular mail service through a particular action.Bentham believed and used research to conclude that deal would natur ally seek delight and avoid pain. Nature had placed mankind down the stairs the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do as well as to determine what we shall do. (Bentham) Bentham truly believed that pleasure was the purest sorting of good and pain the sole evil he saw this as moral fact. This is why Bentham is also known as a hedonist. The hedonists were a separate of Greek people who sought to find true pleasure hedone means pleasure in Greek, this group included people such as Plato and Aristotle who agree that good was found in the greatest cheer.The principle of utility was a way to find out how good or bad an action was, based on its utility (usefulness). An action that creates the most pleasure and the least pain is a useful one and therefore it is good pain v pleasure. For Bentham good, is the utmost tote up of pleasure with the minimum amount of pain afflicted and bad, is pain with little pleasur e received. Bentham believed that in whatever attitude a person should calculate of a solution that will lead to the maximum happiness for the maximum of people.For drill, if a man with the cure for cancer and a young child were in a car crash, you would assume to excuse the life of the child as they are considered to be innocent, however with Benthams theory you should do the maximum amount of good for the maximum amount of people, which means you should save the man. By saving the one man you then save thousands, the action of letting the child ruin is out weighed by the amount of people you have saved if using Benthams theory.However Bentham knew that it would be hard to predict the outcome of every piazza and know which route to take and so in order to help, he came up with the hedonic calculus which you can use to work out which woof will produce the greatest amount of pleasure. There are seven factors which you must take into account when choosing what to do in a certa in situation the intensity of the pleasure, the duration of the pleasure, how certain pleasure will be the result, how near the pleasure is to you, how continuous is the pleasure, is there likely to be pain mixed with the pleasure and how widespread will the pleasure be.When faced in a dilemma, Bentham believed that you could chose the good option the option which would do the most amount of good and the least amount of pain. For example, if you are in a plane crash and you could only save one person your wife, your child or a doctor who has the ability to save many. Bentham believes in this situation you must use the hedonic calculus to form a solution to your problem. The doctor could make thousands of lives better and create much to a greater extent pleasure than if you save the wife or child, however this tough decision would leave you without pleasure. Following Benthams utilitarianism you must save the doctor.When a decision has to be made over a moral situation, the hedonic calculus is used. In using the hedonic calculus the individuals involved should be considered by applying the seven factors to them in relation to the options for the choice of action you have.Utilitarianism has no serious weakness DiscussIt is true that Utilitarianism does have many strengths however it does have weaknesses too. Bentham, torpedo, Hare and Singers theories each have their own faults.Utilitarianism is very straight forward and easy to understand. It is very natural for a person to consider the outcome and how much pleasure they will gain before outlet through with an action. It is a principle that aims to bring people happiness this is very appealing for many in societies. umpteen of the ideas and theories can be related to specific actions and situations and therefore can be helped out in the process of considering what to do in certain places, for example tolerant to charity gives happiness to the poor and is good whereas acting cruelly towards someone is bad.T he use of Utilitarianism can be carried out universally. Utilitarianism is not dependant on any religion, culture, race or society as it is about a person or groups happiness. This use of utilitarianism is great because it makes people picture and understand another(prenominal) peoples point of view for example if you were to hit someone then instead of carrying out the action, you would think about the outcome picture yourself in the other persons garb understand that pain which you would cause and subsequently stop yourself from hurting them. You have to think of other peoples pleasure and pain rather than just your own. This is mainly used in preference utilitarianism as Hare put it standing in someone elses shoes.The fact that Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory is both good and bad. It is natural for us to weigh up the consequences of an action before carrying it out however it is never going to be easy to always predict the outcome of an action completely right for example if you go out to steal to help your family survive moreover then get caught and arrested then you can no longer carry out the good action of helping your family.Utilitarianism may also be argued against because it ignores or seems to ignore the importance of following duties the act itself may be right or wrong for a reason other than the amount of happiness it produces, for example an old friend is on his death bed and asks you to swear that you will give 30,000 (all of his money when he dies) to his favourite parking lot he used to come across but on the way to handing over the money you see an advert that says it needs 30,000 to save 10,000 people. Out of duty you must give the money to the park however if you are following Utilitarianism your belief is that the money must going into creating the most good/ happiness which would be saving those 10,000 people. W.D Ross believed it was important for you to follow and carry out your duty.Benthams Act utilitarianism alth ough was flexible and relied on the consequences it had no defence for minorities for example one slave being treated badly but creating happiness for a whole family would be thought of as right. Also it is very impractical having to calculate using the hedonic calculus every decision we make. There is also a difficulty defining what pleasure is for example a paedophiles pleasure is very different to another persons. Mills Rule utilitarianism is very practical and sets about certain rules for society that must be maintained which can help societies to operate. However there are weaknesses to rule utilitarianism too again there is no defence for minorities or any help at what defines happiness but also this time if you are following rules you could end up obeying them even when more happiness can be created by disobeying them.