Thursday, September 26, 2019

Research paper about the Earthquakes Information, time scale, plate

About the Earthquakes Information, time scale, plate tectonic, slope stability, all kinds of it, statistics, num - Research Paper Example The paper uses a practical approach to examine earthquakes by evaluating five specific cases cases. These cases include major events in: 1. The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake 2. The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake 3. The 1964 Alaska Earthquake 4. The 1960 Chilean Earthquake and 5. The 2004 Sumatra Earthquake The paper renders a very extensive research into these earthquakes and the effects they had on the lives and properties of the societies at the given points they occurred. It examines the elements of physical geography in the areas and the exact impact of the quakes on these areas. In arriving at this end, the following objectives are met: 1. An examination of the social factors that existed in these three regions prior to the earthquakes 2. The geographical analysis of the components of the earthquakes. 3. An evaluation of the effects of the earthquakes on human lives and property. II Scientific Background of Earthquakes â€Å"An earthquake is a series of vibrations or seismic (shock) wa ves which originates from the focus – the point at which the plates release their tension or compression suddenly† (Nagle & Guiness 263). Earthquakes involve the phenomenon where the earth surface shakes at certain points in time. It involves some kind of vibration that is emitted from deep within the earth's crust. Earthquakes result from some shocks that are remitted from within the earth's surface which is felt on the land and in the sea. Earthquakes often cause the damage of building and destruction of properties. The epicenter of an earthquake is the part of the surface of the earth which is the focus of the earthquake. Usually, the epicenter is the point on the earth where the highest impact of the earthquake occurs. Aside the epicenter, the earthquake is felt in other lands around the epicenter. However, relative to the epicenter, the other areas affected by the earthquake is much lesser than that of the epicenter. Earthquakes are emitted by a series of shocks. T here are some large shocks whilst there are other smaller shocks. These shocks shake the earth surface and are known as tremors. The tremors that occur before the earthquake are known as foreshocks whilst those that occur after the major earthquake are known as aftershocks (Nagle & Guiness 265). In terms of occurrence, there dynamics of earthquakes vary with the layer within which an earthquake emanates. Primary waves are body shocks in the earth's interior. The occur deep within the earth and close to the earth's core. Secondary shocks occur nearer to the surface of the earth. They are known as surface waves. Their impacts are quite less than primary waves. The primary waves affect a wider surface area and have a higher intensity on the epicenter. Earthquakes are measured by two popular methods (Nagle & Guiness 266). One of them is the Richter Scale whilst the other is the Mercalli Scale. The Richter scale records the magnitude of earthquakes on a scale of 1 to 10. The measurement is based on logarithms and it increases exponentially on the scale of tens. Thus an earthquake judged to be 7 on the scale is ten times more than one that is 6 on the scale. That same earthquake (7) will be judged to be hundred times more than another that is 5 on the scale and so on. The Mercalli Scale however measures the earthquake in terms of its impact on the society. It is a more practical approach to measure how the earthquake was felt by the community that was affected by it. The Mercalli

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